Liquefaction behaviour of twelve tropical hardwood species in phenol
Liquefaction of ligno-cellulosic biomass is one of the chemical conversion technologies for developing new materials, adhesives and energy systems. The liquefaction process also provides an opportunity to utilize ligno–cellulosic wastes such as saw-dust, woody wastes, branches and twigs, agro-residues, etc. for the development of value added products. This paper presents the liquefaction behaviour of wood meal of twelve tropical hardwood species in phenol as liquefying media to produce chemically active liquid which has potential to be used as a raw material for developing different products. The liquefaction was carried out at 1400C temperatures for 120 minutes at different liquid ratios. In all the cases, a viscous and sticky black liquid was obtained after the stipulated reaction time. The liquefaction efficiency was found to vary with species and liquid ratio. The highest liquefaction efficiency of 93% was achieved in balsa wood at 1:3 (wood: phenol) liquid ratio. The liquefied wood and residues were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The liquefied wood was found to be highly acidic in nature. Viscosity of liquefied wood at higher liquid ratio was independent of wood species. Correlation analysis revealed a strong negative relationship between wood basic density and liquefaction efficiency.
Alma, M. H.; Acemioglu, B. 2004. A kinetic study of sulfuric acid catalyzed liquefaction of wood into phenol. Chem Eng Commun 191(7): 968-980.
Chauhan, S. S.; Karmarkar A. 2009. Studies on Liquefaction efficiency of Hevea brasilensis wood in phenol with hydrochloric acid as a catalyst. Journal of Institute of Wood Science 19:22-26.
Demirbas, A. 2000. Mechanisms of liquefaction and pyrolysis reactions of biomass. Energy Convers Mgmt 41:633–646.
Ertas, M.; Fidan, M; Alma, M.H. 2014. Preparation and characterization of biodegradable rigid polyurethane foams from the liquefied eucalyptus and pine woods. Wood Research 59(1): 97-108.
Hrastnik, D; Budija, F; Humar, M; Petric, M. 2013. Influence of liquefied and CCB containing liquefied wood on growth of wood decay fungi. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 15(1): 105-118.
Honglu X; Tiejun S., 2006. Wood liquefaction by ionic liquids. Holzforschung 60(5): 509–512.
Kurimoto, Y.; Doi, S.; Tamura, Y. 1999. Species effects on wood-liquefaction in polyhydric alcohols. Holzforschung, 53: 617–622.
Kurimoto, Y; A Koizumi, A; Doi, S; Tamura, Y; Ono, H. 2001. Wood species effects on the characteristics of liquefied wood and the properties of polyurethane films prepared from the liquefied wood. Biomass and Bioenergy 21(5): 381-390.
Lee, W-J; Chen, Y-C. 2008. Novolak PF resins prepared from phenol liquefied Cryptomeria japonica and used in manufacturing moldings. Bioresource Technology 99: 7247-7254.
Lin, R.; Sun, J.; Yue, C.; Wang, X.; Tu, D.; Gao, Z. 2014. Study on preparation and properties of phenol-formaldehyde-chinese fir liquefaction copolymer resin. Maderas- Cienc Tecnol 16(2): 159-174.
Lin, L.; Yao, Y.; Yoshioka, M.; Shiraishi, N. 2001. Liquefaction mechanism of β-O-4 lignin model compound in the presence of phenol under acid catalysis. Part 2. Reaction behaviour and pathway. Holzforschung 55: 625-630.
Lin, L.; Yao, Y.; Yoshioka, M.; Shiraishi, N. 2004. Liquefaction mechanism of cellulose in the presence of phenol under acid catalysis. Carbohy Polym 57: 123-129.
Pan, H; Zheng, Z.; Hse, C.Y. 2011. Microwave-assisted liquefaction of wood with polyhydric alcohols and its application in preparation of polyurethane (PU) foams. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 69(3):1-10.
Pan, H.; Shupe, T.; Hse, C-Y. 2007. Characterization of liquefied wood residues from different liquefaction conditions. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 105(6): 3740-3746.
Pandey, K. K.; Vuorinen, T. 2008. Comparative study of Photodegradation of wood by a UV laser and xenon light source. Polymer Degradation and Stability 93: 2138-2146.
Petrič M.; Ugovšek, A; Sernek, M. 2015. Bonding and surface finishing of wood with liquefied wood. Pro Ligno 11(4): 239-245.
Poletto, M.; Zattera, A.J.; Santana, R.M. 2012. Structural differences between wood species: evidence from chemical composition, FTIR spectroscopy, and thermo gravimetric analysis. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 126:E336-E343.
Poletto, M. 2017. Comparative study of wood flour photodegradation of two wood species submitted to artificial weathering. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 19(2): 141-148.
Pu, S.; Shiraishi, N. 1993. Liquefaction of wood without a catalyst-I time course of wood liquefaction with phenols and effects of wood/phenol ratios. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 39(4): 446-452.
Pu, S.; Shiraishi, N. 1994. Liquefaction of wood without a catalyst IV. Effect of additives, such as acid, salt, and neutral organic solvent. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 40(8): 824-829.
Tappi 1988. Acid-insoluble lignin in wood and pulp. Test Method T 222 om-15.
Worthy, W. 1990. Lignocelluloses promise improved products for materials industries. Chemical Engg News 15: 19.
Yamazaki, J.; Minami, E.; Saka S 2006. Studies on the liquefaction of beach wood using supercritical alcohols. J Wood Sci 52(6): 527-532.
Yao, Y. 1996. Liquefaction of wood and other biomass in the presence of alcohols and its application. Doctor’s thesis, Faculty of Agri., Kyoto Univ. Pp. 6 –33.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.