Investigation of some surface properties and thermogravimetric analysis of veneer sheets treated with fire retardants
This study investigated the effects of different fire retardant chemicals on surface and thermal properties of veneer sheets. Beech (Fagus orientalis), alder (Alnus glutinosa), poplar (Populus deltoides) and scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) were chosen as wood species and zinc borate, borax, monoammonium phosphate and ammonium sulfate were chosen as fire retardant chemicals. The samples were impregnated by using the immersion method. Some surface properties such as colour measurements and surface roughness of the veneer sheets were conducted according to CIE L*a*b* system, DIN 4768 standard, respectively. Some thermal properties such as thermal conductivity of the veneer sheets were conducted according to ASTM C 518 & ISO 8301 and weight loss after combustion was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). According to the results from the study, it was found that fire retardant chemicals increased the thermal conductivity and surface roughness of veneer sheets. Also, TGA experiments showed that all of the fire retardant chemicals decreased the loss in weights.
Aydin, I. 2004. Effects of some manufacturing conditions on wettability and bonding of veneers obtained from various wood species. Ph.D., Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.
Aydin, I.; Colakoglu, G. 2005. Effects of surface inactivation, high temperature drying and preservative treatment on surface roughness and colour of alder and beech wood. Applied Surface Science 252 (2): 430-440.
Aydin, I.; Colakoglu, G. 2008. Variations in bending strength and modulus of elasticity of spruce and alder plywood after steaming and high temperature drying. Mechanics of Advanced Materials And Structures 15(5): 371-374.
Ayrilmis, N., Korkut, S., Tanritanir, E., Winandy, J.E., Hiziroglu, S. 2006. Effect of various fire retardants on surface roughness of plywood. Building and Environment 41: 887-892.
Brosse, N.; El Hage, R.; Chaouch, M.; Petrissans, M.; Dumarcay, S.; Gérardin, P. 2010.Investigation of the chemical modifications of beech wood lignin during heat treatment. Polymer Degradation and Stability 95 (9): 1721-1726.
Burtin, P.; Allemand, C.J.; Charpentier, J.P.; Janin, F. 1998. Natural wood colouring process in Juglans sp. (J. nigra, J. regia and Hybrid J. nigra 23 J. regia) depends on native phenolic compounds accumulated in transition zone between sapwood and heartwood. Trees 12 (5): 258-264.
Deutsches Institut für Norming. DIN. 1990. Determination of Values of Surface Roughness Parameters Ra, Rz, Rmax Using Electrical Contact (Stylus) Instruments, Concepts and Measuring Conditions DIN 4768. 1990. Deutsches Institut für Norming: Berlin, Germany.
Dundar, T.; Ayrilmis, N.; Candan, Z. 2008. Evaluation of surface roughness of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) made from beech veneers treated with various fire retardants and dried at different temperatures. Forest Product Journals 54 (1/2): 71-76.
Esteves, B.M.; Pereira, H.M. 2008. Wood modification by heat treatment: A review. BioResources 4 (1):370-404.
Fateh, T.; Rogaume, T.; Luche, J.; Richard, F.; Jabouille, F. 2013. Kinetic and mechanism of the thermal degradation of a plywood by using thermogravimetry and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy analysis in nitrogen and air atmosphere. Fire Safety Journal 58 (May 2013): 25-37.
Gao, M.; Sun, C.Y.; Wang, C.X. 2006. Thermal degradation of wood treated with flame retardants. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 85 (3): 763-769.
Gu, H.M.; Zink-Sharp, A. 2005. Geometric model for softwood transverse thermal conductivity. Part I. Wood and Fiber Science 37 (4): 699-711.
Hagen, M.; Hereid, J.; Delichatsios, M.A.; Zhang, J.; Bakirtzis, D. 2009. Flammability assessment of fire-retarded Nordic Spruce wood using thermogravimetric analyses and cone calorimetry. Fire Safety Journal 44 (8): 1053-1066.
He, X.; Li, X.; Zhong, Z.; Yan, Y.; Mou, Q.; Yao, C.; Wang, C. 2014. The fabrication and properties characterization of wood-based flame retardant composites. Journal of Nanomaterials 2014: 1-6.
Holmes, C.A. 1977. Effect of fire-retardant treatments on performance properties of wood. Wood technology: chemical aspects. American Chemical Society.
Hunter Labs. 1996. Hunter Lab Colour Scale. Insight on Colour. 8(9):1-4. Reston, VA, USA: Hunter Associates Laboratories. Available at https://support.hunterlab.com/hc/en-us/article_attachments/201440625/an08_96a2.pdf .
Ishiguri, F.; Maruyama, S.; Takahashi, K.; Abe, Z.; Yokota, S.; Andoh, M.; Yoshizawa, N. 2003. Extractives relating to heartwood color changes in sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) by a combination of smoke-heating and UV radiation exposure. J Wood Sci 49: 135-139.
Istek, A.; Aydemir, D.; Eroglu, H. 2013. Combustion properties of medium-density fiberboards coated by a mixture of calcite and various fire retardants. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 37 (5): 642-648.
Jin S.; Yan, L.; Jing-Yu, W.; Fei W.; Zhen-Zhong, G. 2014. Fire resistance of boron-containing fire-retardant by TG analysis. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 6 (1): 332-337.
Kamke, A.F.; Zylkowoski, S.C. 1989. Effects of wood-based panel characteristics on thermal conductivity. Forest Product Journal 39 (5): 19-24.
Kawasaki, T.; Kawai, S. 2006. Thermal insulation properties of wood-based sandwich panel for use as structural insulated walls and floors. Journal of Wood Science 52 (1): 75-83.
Kol, H.S.; Ozcifci, A.; Altun, S. 2008. Effect of some chemicals on thermal conductivity of laminated veneer lumbers manufactured with urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde adhesives. Kastamonu University J of Forestry Faculty8 (2): 125-130.
Kol, H.S.; Altun, S. 2009. Effect of some chemicals on thermal conductivity of impregnated laminated veneer lumbers bonded with poly (vinyl acetate) and melamine-formaldehyde adhesives. Drying Technology 27 (9): 1010-1016.
Kollmann, F.F.P.; Cote, W.A. 1968. Principles of wood science and technology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Kruger, E.L.; Adriazola, M.K.O. 2010. Thermal analysis of wood-based test cells. Construction Building Materials 24 (6): 999-1007.
LeVan, S.L.; Winandy, J.E. 1990. Effect of fire retardant treatments on wood strength. Wood Fiber Science 22 (1): 113-131.
LeVan, S.L. 1984. Chemistry of Fire Retardancy. In The Chemistry of Solid Wood. Advances in Chemistry 207:531-574. American Chemical Society.
National Institute of Industrial Research. NIIR. 2017. The Complete Technology Book on Wood and Its Derivatives, Chapter 14: Chemistry of Fire Retardancy, National Institute of Industrial Research: Delhi, India.
Ozdemir, F.; Tutus, A.; Bal, B.C. 2013. Effect of fire retardants on thermal conductivity and limited oxygen index of high density fiberboard. SDU Faculty of Forestry Journal 14 (2): 121-126.
Ozkaya, K.; Ilce, C.A.; Burdurlu, E.; Aslan, S. 2007. The effect of potassium carbonate, borax and wolmanit on the burning characteristics of oriented strandboard (OSB). Construction and Building Materials 21(7): 1457-1462.
Pétrissans, A.; Younsi, R.; Chaouch, M.; Gérardin, P.; Pétrissans, M. 2014. Wood thermodegradation: Experimental analysis and modeling of mass loss kinetics. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 16(2): 133-148.
Qu, H.; Wu, W.; Wu, H.; Xie, J.; Xu J. 2011. Study on the effects of flame retardants on the thermal decomposition of wood by TG-MS. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 103 (3): 935-942.
Resch, H.; Hansmann, C.; Pokorny M. 2000. The colour of wood from white oak. Holzforschung und Holzverwertung 52 (1): 13-15.
Roth, M.; Schwarzinger, C.; Mueller, U.; Schmidt, H. 2007. Determination of reaction mechanisms and evaluation of flame retardants in wood-melamine resin-composites. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 79 (1): 306-312.
Rowell, R.M.; Levan-Green, S. 2005. Thermal properties. In: Rowell, RM, editor. Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites, New York, Boca Raton and Florida: Taylor and Francis Group Inc: Chapter 6.
Salman, S.; Pétrissans, A.; Thévenon, M.F.; Dumarcay, S.; Perrin, D.; Pollier, B.; Gérardin, P. 2014. Development of new wood treatments combining boron impregnation and thermo modification: effect of additives on boron leachability. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 72 (3): 355-365.
Simsek, H.; Baysal, E. 2012. An investigation on colour and gloss changes of wood impregnated with borates. Wood Research 57 (2): 271-278.
Sinha, S.; Jhalani, A.; Ravi, M.R.; Ray, A. 2000. Modelling of pyrolysis in wood: a review. SESI Journal 10 (1): 41-62.
Stevens, R.; Es, D.S.; Bezemer, R.; Kranenbarg, A. 2006. The structure-activity relationship of fire retardant phosphorus compounds in wood. Polymer Degradation and Stability 91 (4): 832-841.
Tomak, E.D.; Baysal, E.; Peker, H. 2012. The effect of some wood preservatives on the thermal degradation of Scots pine. Thermochimica Acta 547 (2012): 76-82.
Tondi, G.; Haurie, L.; Wieland, S.; Petutschnigg, A.; Lacasta, A.; Monton, J. 2014. Comparison of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate-based and tannin-boron-based formulations as fire retardant for wood structures. Fire and Materials 38 (3): 381-390.
Uner, I.H.; Deveci, I.; Baysal, E.; Turkoglu, T.; Toker, H.; Peker, H. 2016. Thermal analysis of Oriental beech wood treated with some borates as fire retardants. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 18 (2): 293-304.
Uysal, B.; Kurt, S.; Kol, H.S.; Ozcan, C. 2008. Thermal conductivity of poplar impregnated with some fire retardant. Teknoloji 11 (4): 239-251.
Uysal, B.; Ozciftci, A. 2004. The effects of impregnation chemicals on combustion properties of laminated wood material. Combustion Science and Technology 176 (1): 117-133.
Yao, C.H.; Wu, Y.Q.; Hu, Y.C. 2012. Flame-retardation characteristics and mechanisms of three inorganic magnesium compounds as fire-retardant for wood. Journal of Central South University of Forestry and Technology 32 (1): 18-23.
Yeo, H.; Smith, W.B. 2003. Effect of temperature and moisture content on the discoloration of hard maple lumber, in: Proceedings of Eighth International IUFRO Wood Drying Conference, pp 455-458.
Yildiz, S.; Tomak, E.D.; Yildiz, U.C.; Ustaomer, D. 2013. Effect of artificial weathering on the properties of heat treated wood. Polymer Degradation and Stability 98 (8): 1419-1427.
Yuksel, M.; Baysal, E.; Toker, H.; Simsek, H. 2014. Combustion characteristics of Oriental beech wood impregnated with commonly used borates. Wood Research 59 (1): 39-49.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.