The chemical and morphological properties of oleaster

  • Mehmet Akgül
  • Mehmet Akça
Keywords: Elaeagnus angustifolia, heartwood, inner bark, morphological characteristics, outer bark, phloem, sapwood, rhylidome


This study investigated the morphological characteristics and chemical properties of the wood and the chemical properties of the bark of the oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia) tree, which grows in a variety of climatic conditions in different regions of Turkey. The study materials were taken from three different regions of Turkey having different climatic conditions and elevations with the aim to determine the chemical properties of the bark and wood and the fiber properties of the wood. According to chemical analyses, no significant differences in the core components of the cell wall were observed between the heartwood and the sapwood. The samples collected from the Çankırı region had the highest holocellulose content (84.9%), while the proportions of alpha cellulose (52.3%) and lignin (24.0%) in samples taken from the Balikesir region were found to be higher than in samples from the other regions. According to the sugar analysis, glucose and xylose were found to be higher in the heartwood than in the sapwood. When the sugar ratios were evaluated by region, the glucose and xylose ratios were the highest in the Çankırı region (43.7% and 22.8%) and the lowest in the Konya region (38.3% and 20.5%). When looking at the inner bark (phloem) and outer bark (rhylidome) rates, the amounts of holocellulose and alpha cellulose were higher in the inner bark and the lignin rates were higher in the outer bark. The wood solubility values for cold and hot water, ethyl alcohol and the 1% NaOH were highest in samples from the Çankırı region and lowest in those from the Konya region, whereas bark solubility rates were highest in the samples taken from the Balıkesir region. When morphological characteristics were examined, no obvious differences were seen among the regions in terms of the fiber length, fiber width, lumen diameter or double wall thickness. Upon further investigation, it was determined that the oleaster tree wood was suitable for papermaking, but that the produced paper would exhibit a low resistance value because the average felting rate among the three growing regions was low (39.87%).


Download data is not yet available.


Akgül, M.; Üner, B. 2008. The Chemical Composition of Wood and Bark of Ostrya carpinifolia Scop.. 3rd. International Sci. Conf. FORTECHENVI 2008, Prague, Czech Republic, May 26-30, 215-218.

Akgül, M.; Tozluoğlu, A. 2009. Some Chemical and Morphological Properties of Juvenille Woods from Beech (Fagus orientalis L.) And Pine (Pinus nigra A.) plantations. Trends in Applied Sciences Research 4(2):116-125.

Akgül, M. 2016. The Chemical Components in Wood and Bark of Turkish Hazel (Corylus colurna L.), International Journal of Scientific and Technological Research 2(1): 2422-8702.

Alkan, C.; Eroğlu, H.; Yaman, B. 2003. Fiber morphology of some natural angiospermae taxa in Turkey. Journal of the Bartin Faculty of Forestry 5(5), 102-108.
Anonymous, 2006. www.annual.flowersflower.types.htm.

Anonymous, 2007.

Anonymous, 2016.

Balaban, M.; Yilgör, N.; Strobel, C. 1999. Chemical characteristics of endemic oak-wood Quercus vulcanica Boiss. Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff 57(2): 152-153.

Balaban, M.; Uçar, G. 2001. Extractives and structural components in wood an bark of endemic Oak Quercus vulcanica Boiss. Holzforschung 55: 478-486.

Bektaş, I.; Tutuş, A.; Eroğlu, H. 1999. A study of the suitability of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) for pulp and paper manufacture. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 23(EK3): 589-598.

Biermann, C. J. 1993. Wood and fiber Fundamentals. Essentials of pulping and papermaking. Academic press, London, pp.13-54.

Bostanci, S. 1980. Evaluation Possibilities of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Stems and Roots in Paper Industry. Associate Professor Thesis, K.T.U. Forest Faculty, Trabzon, p. 159.

Bozkurt, Y.; Erdin, N. 1997. Textbook of Wood Technology, İ.U. Forest Faculty Forest Industry Engineering, Istanbul, 363 pp.

Cadania E.; Munoz L.; Fernández de Dimón B.; García-Vallejo M. 2001. Changes in low molecular weight phenolic compounds in Spanish, French and American Oak woods during natural seasoning and toasting. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 49:1790-1798.

Carrol, R.B.; Morehart, A.L.; Stuart, M. 1976. Phomopsis canker of Russian-olive in Delaware. Plant Dis Rep 60:787-788.

Cunha-Queda, A. C.; Riberira, H. M.; Ramos, A.; Cabral, F. 2007. Study of biochemical and microbiological parameters during composting of pine and eucalyptus bark. Bioresource Technology 98: 3213-3220.

Hafızoğlu, H.; Deniz, İ. 2011. Wood Chemistry Lecture Notes Book, K.T.U. Forest Faculty, Trabzon, 197 pp.

Kähkönen, M. P.; Hapia, A. I.; Vuorela, H. J.; Rauha, J. P.; Pihlaja, K.; Kujala, T. S.; Heinonen, M. 1999. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 47:3954-3962.

Karonen, M.; Hämäläinen, M.; Nieminen, R.; Klika, D. K.; Laponen, J.; Ocharenko, V.; Mailainen, E.; Pihlaja, K. 2004. Phenolic extractives from the bark of Pinussylvestris L. and their effects on inflammatory mediators nitric oxide and Prostaglandin E2. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 52:7532-7540.

Kirci, H. 2000. Paper Pulp Industries Lecture Notes. K.T.U. Forest Faculty. Edition No:63. Trabzon. 274 pp.

Krupinsky, J.M.; Frank, A.B. 1986. Effects of water stress on Tubercularia canker of Russian olive. Montana State Univ Coop. Ext 117:171-172.

Peterson, G.W. 1976. Disease of Russian-olive caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae. Plant Dis Rep 60:490- 494.

Pietta, P. 2000. Flavanoids as antioxidants. Journal of Natural Products 63:1035-1042.

Sluiter, A.; Hames, B.; Ruiz, R.; Scarlata, C.; Sluiter, J.; Templeton, D.; Crocker, D. 2008. Determination of structuıral carbonhydrates and ligninin biomass, Technical report NRELL/TP-510-42618, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colarado.

Tan, Y. M.; Yu, R.; Pezzuto, J. M. 2003. Betulinic acid-induced programmed cell death in human melanoma cell involves mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Clinical Cancer Research 9:2866-2875.

Timell, T.E. 1982. Recent progress in the chemistry and topochemistry of compression wood. Wood and Science Technology 16: 83-122.

Wilför, S. M.,;Ahotupo, M. O.; Hemming, J. E.; Reunanen, M. H.; Eklund, P. C.; Sjöhölm, R. E.; Eckerman, C. S.; Pohjamo, S. P.; Holmbom, B. R. 2003.

Antioxidant activity of knot wood extractives and phenolic compounds of selected tree species. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 51:7600-7606.

Wise, L.E. 1952-1962. Wood Chemistry,Vol.:1-2, Reinhold Publishing Corparation, 36 N.Y, New York.

Wise., L.E.; Jahn, E.C. 1952. Wood Chemistry. Second Edition. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, USA, 1344 pp.
How to Cite
Akgül, M., & Akça, M. (2019). The chemical and morphological properties of oleaster. Maderas. Ciencia Y Tecnología, 22(1). Retrieved from