Phenolics content and antioxidant activity of wood extractives from three clones of acacia hybrid (Acacia mangium × Acacia auriculiformis)


  • Brandon Aristo Verick Purba
  • Sri Sunarti
  • Ganis Lukmandaru


Acacia hybrid, heartwood, phenolic contents, sapwood, wood extractives


The objective of this study was to investigate the extractive content of three fast growing Acacia hybrid clones (Clone 16, 25, and 44) wood in three radial directions (SW = sapwood; OHW = outer heartwood; IHW = inner heartwood); total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol contents (colorimetric assay); and antioxidant activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay). Extractions were done with three different solvents in successive (n-hexane = H; methanol = M; hot water = W), yielded 0,69 % – 1,70 %; 1,51 % – 10,86 %; and 0,51 % – 1,16 % of extractive contents, respectively. The total phenolic content (TPC) from TPC-H, TPC-M, and TPC-W ranged between 3,68 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g – 10,41 mg GAE/g; 76,83 mg GAE/g – 448,35 mg GAE/g; and 43,28 mg GAE/g – 198,92 mg GAE/g, respectively; the total flavonoid content (TFC) from TFC-H, TFC-M, and TFC-W between 4,23 mg of quercetin equivalent (QE)/g – 41,51 mg QE/g; 29,55 mg QE/g – 133,71 mg QE/g; and 7,70 mg QE/g – 29,37 mg QE/g, respectively; total flavanol content (TVC) from TVC-H, TVC-M, and TVC-W ranged between 28,74 mg of catechin equivalent (CE)/g – 66,90 mg CE/g; 83,39 mg CE/g – 247,18 mg CE/g; and 7,08 mg CE/g – 29,21 mg CE/g, respectively. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was found to be significantly affected by the radial factor with the strongest activity exhibited by inner heartwood extract with an IC50 value of 255,77 μg/ml (gallic acid IC50 showed a value of 39,00 μg/ml). Among clones, clone 16 was determined to have the highest extractive, total flavonoid as well as flavanol contents. Thus, clone 16 was hypothesized to be more resistance against heart rot disease.


Download data is not yet available.


Baba, S.A.; Malik, S.A. 2015. Determination of total phenolic and flavonoid content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of a root extract of Arisaema jacquemontii Blume. J Taibah Univ Sci 9(4): 449-454.

Barry, K.M.; Mihara, R.; Davies, N.W.; Mitsunaga, T.; Mohammed, C.L. 2005. Polyphenol in Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis heartwood with reference to heart rot susceptibility. J Wood Sci 51(6): 615-621.

Coetzee, M.P.A; Wingfield, B.D.; Golani, G.D.; Tjahjono, B.; Gafur, A.; Wingfield, M.J. 2011. A single dominant Ganoderma species is responsible for root rot of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus in Sumatra. South For 73(3-4): 175-180.

Diouf, P.N.; Stevanovic, T.; Cloutier, A. 2009. Antioxidant properties and polyphenol contents of trembling aspen bark extracts. Wood Sci Technol 43(5-6): 457-470.

Drewes S.E.; Roux D.G. 1966. A new flavan-3,4-diol from Acacia auriculiformis by paper ionophoresis. Biochem J 98(2): 493-500.

Dünisch, O.; Richter, H.G.; Koch, G. 2010. Wood properties of juvenile and mature heartwood in Robinia pseudoacacia L. Wood Sci Technol 44(2): 301-313.

Foo, L.Y. 1984. Condensed tannins: co-occurrence of procyanidins, prodelphinidins and profisetinidins in the heartwood of Acacia baileyana. Phytochemistry 23(12): 2915–2918.

Foti, M.C. 2007. Antioxidant properties of phenols. J Pharm Pharmacol 59(12): 1673-1685.

Franco, D.; Sineiro, J.; Rubilar, M.; Sanchez, M.; Jerez, M.; Pinelo, M.; Costoya, N.; Nunez, M.J. 2008. Polyphenols from plant materials: extraction and antioxidant power. EJEAFChe 7(8): 3210-3216.

Gutiérrez, A.; del Río, J.C.; Martínez, A.T.; 2004. Chemical analysis and biological removal of wood lipids forming pitch deposits in paper pulp manufacturing. In Environmental Microbiology. Methods in Biotechnology Vol. 16. Walker, J.M.; Spencer, J.F.T.; Ragout de Spencer A.L. (Eds.) Humana Press, New Jersey, USA.

Hennia, A.; Miguel, M.G.; Nemmiche, S. 2018. Antioxidant activity of Myrtus communis L. and Myrtus nivellei Batt. & Trab. extracts: a brief review. Medicines 5(3): 89.

IBM. 2020. IBM SPSS Statistics program, Version 25.

Kadir, R.; Hale, M.D. 2017. Antioxidant potential and content of phenolic compounds in extracts of twelve selected Malaysian commercial wood species. Eur J Wood Wood Prod 75(4): 615-622.

Kha, L.D. 2000. Studies on natural hybrid of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis in Vietnam. J Trop For Sci 12(4): 794-803.

McLean, D.S.; Stack, R.S.; Richardson, D.E. 2014. The effect of wood extractives composition, pH, and temperature on pitch deposition. Appita J 58(1): 52-76.

Mihara, R.; Barry, K.M.; Mohammed, C.L.; Mitsunaga, T. 2005. Comparison of anti fungal and antioxidant of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis. J Chem Ecol 31(4): 789-804.

Mohammed, C.L.; Barry, K.M.; Irianto, R.S.B. 2006. Heart rot and root rot in Acacia mangium identification and assessment. In Heart rot and root rot in tropical Acacia plantations. Potter K.; Rimbawanto A.; Beadle C. (Eds.) ACIAR, Canberra, Australia.

Nugroho, W.D.; Marsoem, S.N.; Yasue, K.; Fujiwara, T.; Nakajima, T.; Hayakawa, M.; Nakaba, S.; Yamagishi, Y.; Jin, H.; Kubo, T.; Funada, R. 2012. Radial variations in the anatomical characteristics and density of the wood of Acacia mangium of five different provenances in Indonesia. J Wood Sci 58(3): 185-194.

Pietarinen, S.P.; Willför, S.M.; Sjöholm, R.E.; Holmbom, B.R. 2004. Extractives in Acacia mangium and Acacia crassicarpa stemwood and knots. In Proceedings of the 58th Appita Conference, 19-21 April 2004, Canberra, Australia.

Pinso, C.; Nasi, R. 1991. The potential use of Acacia mangium × Acacia auriculiformis hybrid in Sabah. In Breeding Technologies for Tropical Acacias Carron, L.; Aken, K. (Eds.) ACIAR, Canberra, Australia.

Pinto, P.C.; Evtuguin, D.V.; Pascoal N.C. 2005. Chemical composition and structural features of the macromolecular components of plantation Acacia mangium wood. J Agric Food Chem 53(20): 7856-7862.

Rappoport, Z. 2003. The chemistry of phenols. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, West Sussex, England.

Seigler, D.S. 2003. Phytochemistry of acacia – sensu lato. Biochem Syst Ecol 31(8): 845–873.

Sein, C.C.; Mitlohner, R. 2011. Acacia mangium Willd: Ecology and Silviculture. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.

Shmulsky, R.; Jones, P.D. 2011. Forest products & wood science – an Introduction. Wiley-Blackwell, Mississippi, USA.

Soon, L.K.; Chiang, L.K. 2012. Influence of different extraction solvents on lipophilic extractives of Acacia hybrid in different wood portions. Asian J Appl Sci 5(2): 107-116.

Sudin, M.; Lee, S.S.; Harun, A.H. 1993. A survey of heart rot in some plantations of Acacia mangium in Sabah. J Trop For Sci 6(1): 37-47

Sunarti, S.; Na’iem, M.; Hardiyanto, E.B.; Indrioko, S. 2013. Breeding strategy of Acacia hybrid (Acacia mangium x A. auriculiformis) to increase plantation productivity in Indonesia. J Man Hut Trop 19(2): 128-137.

Taylor, A.M; Gartner, B.L; Morrell, J.J. 2002. Heartwood formation and natural durability: a review. Wood Fiber Sci 34(4): 587-611.

Wissam, Z.; Ghada, B.; Wassim, A.; Warid, K. 2012. Effective extraction of polyphenols and proanthocyanidins from pomegranate’s peel. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 4(3): 675-682.

Yahya, R.; Sugiyama, J.; Silsia, D.; Gril, J. 2010. Some anatomical features of an Acacia hybrid, A. mangium and A. auriculiformis grown in Indonesia with regard to pulp yield and paper strength. J Trop For Sci 22(3): 343-351.




How to Cite

Aristo Verick Purba, B. ., Sunarti, S. ., & Lukmandaru, G. . (2021). Phenolics content and antioxidant activity of wood extractives from three clones of acacia hybrid (Acacia mangium × Acacia auriculiformis). Maderas-Cienc Tecnol, 23, 1–12. Retrieved from