Maderas. Ciencia y Tecnología <p>Maderas: Ciencia y Tecnología es una revista internacional de investigación científica, que comunica el conocimiento generado en Chile o en el exterior por la investigación científica y tecnológica en el ámbito de la Ciencia y la Tecnología de la Madera.</p> <table style="margin-top: -250px; width: auto;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 30%;"><strong><span style="color: #ffffff; text-align: center;"> Vol 20, No 1 (2018)<br></span></strong><br> <img style="width: 300px;" src="/public/site/images/visepul/cover_3d_20(1).jpg" alt=""></td> <td style="width: 30%;"> <p><img style="width: 30px;" src="" alt=""> <a href="">Full Text PDF</a><br> <img style="width: 30px;" src="" alt=""> e-book version<br> <a href=""><img style="width: 30px;" src="" alt=""></a> mobile version</p> </td> <td style="width: 30%;"> <p>Editor-in-Chief: <a href="" target="_self">Rubén A. Ananias</a><span id="result_box" class="short_text" lang="en"><br>Technical Editor</span>: <a href="">Linette Salvo S.<br></a>Digital Manager: <a href="">Victor Sepúlveda V.</a><br>E-mail :<a href=""></a><br>E-mail :<a href=""></a><br><br>2016 Journal Impact Factors:<br> 2-years: 1.1<br>5-years: 1.11<br> Frequency: 4 issues by year.<br>ISSN 0718-221X online version.<br>ISSN 0717-3644 printed version.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Universidad del Bio-Bio en-US Maderas. Ciencia y Tecnología 0717-3644 Chemical characterization and FTIR spectroscopy of thermally compressed eucalyptus wood panels <p>In this study, the change in the chemical properties of the thermally modified eucalyptus (<em>Eucalyptus camaldulensis</em>) wood boards were examined by wet chemical analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. The eucalyptus wood boards were modified with a laboratory type hot-press for four different groups at press pressures of 2 or 4 MPa and temperatures of 150°C or 180°C and compared to untreated control. After this, hot water, 1% NaOH, ethanol-cyclohexane, ethanol, and methanol-water solubility values were determined for the treated samples. In addition, the content of klason lignin, acid soluble lignin, holocellulose, and α-cellulose were investigated. The solubility values (except for the ethanol solubility) increased in the modified wood when compared to the untreated control. A decrease in the content of acid soluble lignin, holocellulose and α-cellulose was observed while the content of klason lignin in the modified wood was increased. According to the FTIR analysis results, significant changes were observed in the spectra of the modified samples. These findings were in agreement with the results of wet chemical analysis.</p> Oktay Gonultas Zeki Candan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-03 2018-03-03 20 unassigned The wettability and surface free energy of sawn, sliced and sanded european oak wood <p>The main objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of two machining processes on European oak wood surface characteristics. The relationships between wettability, free surface energy and machining methods were studied. Sawing and slicing, with or without sanding, were used to prepare surfaces prior to testing whether they produce surfaces with different characteristics. For the wood surfaces machined by slicing and sawing, there was a significant difference in contact angle measurements. This indicates that the influence of machining processes such as slicing and sawing on contact angle value is remarkable. Sanded surfaces showed good wettability and high process roughness.</p> Agnieszka Jankowska Marcin Zbieć Paweł Kozakiewicz Grzegorz Koczan Sylwia Oleńska Piotr Beer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-03 2018-03-03 20 unassigned Durability of wood treated with aatmos and caffeine – towards the long-term carbon storage <p>Increasing emission of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide, and reduced capacity of carbon sequestration due to excessive deforestation are the dominant reasons for the observed climate warming. Wood and wood products are inherent parts of the overall carbon “jigsaw puzzle”. Wood products require much lower process energy and result in lower carbon emission than non-wood products. Therefore, the prolonging lifespan of wood products seems to be a good economical and environmentally friendly solution.</p> <p>The aim of the research was to determine the effectiveness of wood treatment with aminosilane, caffeine and the mixture thereof to enhance its durability. Thereby, their potential impact on the environment was intended to be checked by allowing for carbon storage in treated wood for a longer period of time. Pine wood samples were vacuum-treated with three formulations: aminosilane, alkaloid and the mixture thereof. Resistance of wood against brown-rot fungus was assessed. Carbon content and carbon emission from wood samples were determined.</p> <p>The best results in wood protection against biodegradation and the highest carbon sequestration effectiveness were achieved for the two-component mixture. Interactions between these chemicals and wood prevented their leachability. This resulted in increased durability of the treated wood samples, sequestering carbon for a longer period of time and limiting its emission from wood to the atmosphere while exposed outside.</p> Magdalena Broda Bartłomiej Mazela Marcin Frankowski ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-03 2018-03-03 20 unassigned Influence of technical characteristics on the rolling shear properties of cross laminated timber by modified planar shear tests <p class="MDPI17abstract" style="line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';" lang="EN-US">Rolling shear properties of cross laminated timber are important mechanical properties </span><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; color: windowtext;" lang="EN-US">for its structural application. To evaluate the influence of technical characteristics such as </span><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';" lang="EN-US">edge-gluing and gap size in the cross layers, on the measurement of rolling shear modulus and strength of cross laminated timber, three-layer spruce-pine-fire cross laminated timber shear block specimens with and without edge-gluing, with gaps of 2 mm, 4 mm and 6 mm, were tested by a modified planar shear test method. The mean values of rolling shear strength and modulus of No. 2 visual grade spruce-pine-fire cross laminated timber were 1.32 MPa and 111 MPa with coefficients of variance of 20% and </span><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; color: windowtext;" lang="EN-US">28%, respectively, regardless of technical characteristics. The characteristic rolling shear </span><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';" lang="EN-US">strength of all groups of three-layer cross laminated timber specimens was determined to be 0.88 MPa. The results indicated that the rolling shear strength and modulus values used in current design practice of spruce-pine-fire cross laminated timber were conservative. It was found that edge-gluing and gap size had a significant influence on measuring rolling shear strength rather than apparent rolling shear modulus by the modified planar shear test method. With the gap size larger than 2 mm, its influence on measuring rolling shear strength became negligible. The three major initial failure modes identified for the cross layer regardless of technical characteristics were rolling shear failure along the growth ring, tension perpendicular to grain failure in wood pith and tension perpendicular to grain failure along the wood ray.</span></p> Zhiqiang Wang Jianhui Zhou Weiqun Dong Yue Yao Meng Gong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-03 2018-03-03 20 unassigned Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in treated woods deteriorated by a white rot fungus <p>This study aimed to analyze chemical changes by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of <em>Eucalyptus dunnii</em> and <em>Pinus elliottii</em> treated woods subjected to an accelerated decay test with the white rot fungus <em>Ganoderma applanatum</em>. The wood test specimens (2.5x2.5x0.9 cm) were impregnated with preservative solutions of chromated copper borate and synthetic pyrethroids and carbamates with 6% concentration by a vaccum-pressure process. After a decay test of 16 weeks, the chemical changes of the treated and untreated wood samples were evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. It was observed that the rot fungus attack caused a variation in the intensity and a displacement of spectrum peaks, indicating a change to the woods’ chemical composition after fungal exposure. The lignin / carbohydrate ratio indicated that the fungus had no preference for a specific cell wall component, pointing to a simultaneous deterioration of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in the treated and untreated woods. Finally, the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy technique, together with the lignin / carbohydrate ratio analysis, proved efficient in the study of the variation of the wood chemical modifications deteriorated by rot fungi.</p> Ezequiel Gallio Paula Zanatta Débora Duarte Ribes Marília Lazarotto Darci Alberto Gatto Rafael Beltrame ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-03 2018-03-03 20 unassigned Natural durability assessment of thermo-modified young wood of eucalyptus <p>This study focuses on the effect on wood strength and natural durability of <em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> and <em>Eucalyptus botryoides</em> when subjected to heat treatments with low energy consumption. The objective was to improve the wood durability, without negatively impacting the strength properties. Six-year-old trees from <em>Eucalyptus</em><em> globulus</em> and <em>Eucalyptus</em><em> botryoides</em> were used.</p> <p>The samples were heat treated for 4 h conditioned to very low oxygen availability. A field test for assessing the resistance to termites and fungal degradation was conducted according to EN 252:1989/AC1:1989 Inspections were made every six months for 3 years. All the samples of <em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> showed signs of termite and microorganisms attack, most showing extensive galleries. <em>Eucalyptus botryoides</em> wood showed no sign of termite attack and only few traces of microrganisms presence. The wood bending strength was smaller upon thermal treatment for both species, decreasing 3.8% and 4.8% for <em>Eucalyptus globulus </em>and <em>Eucalyptus botryoides</em>, respectively. Overall the results are promising regarding some common utilizations, mainly floor coverings, decks, doors and door and window frames, fences (only for <em>Eucalyptus botryoides</em>), decorative arbors and pergolas (only for <em>Eucalyptus botryoides</em>), but excluding structural beams for building roofs or bridges due to the fragility of the wood treated thermally towards impacts.</p> Sofia Knapic Joana Santos José Santos Helena Pereira ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-03 2018-03-03 20 unassigned Effect of microwave heating on ph and termite resistance of Pinus roxburghii wood <p>This study investigated the effect of microwave treatment on wood pH and termite resistance. <em>Pinus roxburghii</em> heartwood was exposed to four different microwave intensities at 2450 MHz frequency for 5 minutes. Preservative impregnation, pH variation and termite resistance of microwave-treated and control specimens were studied. Wood pH decreased from 4.6 (C1) to 3.9 (T4) and preservative uptake increased (i.e., 10.41 to 21.61 kgm<sup>-3</sup>) with increasing microwave treatment intensities. However, microwave treatment had little effect on termite resistance.</p> Pawan Kumar Poonia Sadhna Tripathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-03 2018-03-03 20 unassigned Distinctive delignification with consecutive application of Geobacillus sp. 71 xylanase and Rhodococcus jostii rha1 lignin peroxidase <p>In present study, single and consecutive applications of xylanase and lignin peroxidase were performed in an XOQP TCF sequence to bleach pine and eucalypts kraft pulp. The consecutive use of <em>Geobacillus sp.</em> strain 71 xylanase and <em>Rhodococcus jostii</em> RHA1 lignin peroxidase was more effective than the single uses. XyzGeo71 treatment (X) indicates a 9.76% and 28.52% reduction in kappa number for pine and eucalypts kraft pulps, respectively. LiPRHA1 treatment (X) showed a 7.88% and 20.9% reduction a in kappa number for pine and eucalypts kraft pulps, respectively. The consecutive treatment of XyzGeo71 and LiPRHA1&nbsp; (X), however, indicated a 13.67% and 37.2% reduction in kappa number for pine and eucalypts kraft pulps, respectively. The results showed that delignification with the consecutive xylanase and lignin peroxidase treatment was very significant.</p> Aysegul Ozer Sabriye Canakci Gozde Gocmen Ilhan Deniz Huseyin Kirci Onur Tolga Okan Ali Osman belduz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-03 2018-03-03 20 unassigned Analysis of biological pretreatment of rapeseed straw with white rot fungi for enzymatic hydrolysis <p>The effect of biological pretreatment on the rapeseed straw was evaluated by solid-state cultivation of white rot fungi <em>Phanerochaete chrysosporium</em>. <em>P.chrysosporium </em>degraded the lignin during the pretreatment, with enzymatic hydrolysis ratios increasing in the pretreated straw (3-fold after a 15 day pretreatment). The samples were identified by XRD, FTIR and SEM. X-ray analysis showed that pretreated samples had higher crystallinity than untreated samples (39.47% for a pretreated sample compared to 33.17% for untreated samples) and FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the content of lignocellulose also decreased during the biological pretreatment process. The surface characterization study showed morphological changes in pretreated samples. Moreover, the biological pretreatment slowed a plunge in hydrolysis rate during enzymatic hydrolysis.</p> Rasool Ghasemzadeh Mohammad T. Hamed Mosavian Afzal Karimi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-03 2018-03-03 20 unassigned