SIMULACIÓN Y OPTIMIZACIÓN DE SISTEMA DE MANUFACTURA CON CRITERIOS ECONÓMICO Y AMBIENTAL

Palabras clave: Simulación, Optimización, Metaheurística, Toma de Decisiones Multicriterio, Impacto ambiental, Industria maderera

Resumen

En la simulación y optimización de un sistema de manufactura se buscan los parámetros de entrada para obtener el mejor desempeño del sistema, considerando en muchos casos un único objetivo o medida de desempeño. Sin embargo, muchas decisiones implican múltiples criterios, usualmente en conflicto. Actualmente, las empresas se ven exigidas a mejorar su rentabilidad, como también presionadas a reducir sus impactos en el ambiente y utilizar racionalmente la energía. En este trabajo se estudió el proceso de manufactura de artículos de madera de una pequeña empresa, para determinar alternativas de rediseño, con criterios económico y ambiental en simultáneo. Se construyó un modelo de simulación del sistema, el cual fue validado y verificado, y un modelo de optimización para el mismo, en el que se combinaron dos objetivos en una única función, incorporándose en la misma las preferencias de los decisores respecto a cada criterio. Los resultados, combinando ambos criterios en simultáneo, muestran substanciales mejoras en el beneficio, generando menos emisiones que si se persiguiese solamente el objetivo económico. Se concluye que la simulación en conjunto con la optimización multiobjetivo puede mejorar el desempeño económico-ambiental de los sistemas fabriles del sector maderero en forma apreciable, incluso en pequeños establecimientos.

Citas

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Publicado
2018-04-20
Sección
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