Evaluación de impacto ambiental mediante la introducción de indicadores a un modelo BIM de vivienda social

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22320/07190700.2019.09.02.07

Palabras clave:

Energía incorporada, emisiones de CO2, residuos de demolición y construcción, diseño por ordenador

Resumen

Building Information Modeling (BIM) constituye una herramienta versátil para analizar el ciclo de vida de los edificios y el uso eficiente de los recursos, reducción, reuso y reciclado de residuos de construcción y demolición hacia un parque edilicio sin carbono para 2020 en Europa. Este trabajo propone una nueva metodología para incorporar indicadores: energía incorporada, emisiones de CO2, residuos de construcción y demolición además de sólidos urbanos, en modelos BIM que evalúan el impacto ambiental siguiendo la estructura de la Base de Costes de la Construcción de Andalucía (BCCA). Se eligió un bloque de vivienda social en Sevilla, como caso de estudio, para focalizarse en el análisis de su estructura de hormigón armado debido a su alto impacto.Los resultados agrupados por tarea e indicador muestran el rol preponderante del hormigón. Por el contrario, el acero demuestra ser menos energo-consumidor, generando menos emisiones y permitiendo reducir los residuos mediante reciclaje. Según la discriminación por tareas, se destaca el bajo impacto de las fundaciones frente a la superestructura resistente. Asimismo, cada metro cuadrado de construcción típica genera 76.11 de residuo de construcción y demolición, siendo 76,11 kg mixto proveniente del hormigón y 0,34 kg, del acero.

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Biografía del autor/a

María del Pilar Mercader Moyano, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, España

Doctora en Arquitectura

Docente e Investigadora Departamento de Construcciones

pmm@us.es

Patricia Edith Camporeale, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Doctora en Arquitectura

Docente de Posgrado

pcamporeale@fau.unlp.edu.ar

Elías Cózar-Cózar, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, España

Doctor en Ingeniería de Edificación

Docente de Posgrado

cozarelias@gmail.com

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Publicado

2019-12-31

Cómo citar

Mercader Moyano, M. del P., Camporeale, P. E., & Cózar-Cózar, E. (2019). Evaluación de impacto ambiental mediante la introducción de indicadores a un modelo BIM de vivienda social. Hábitat Sustentable, 9(2), 78-93. https://doi.org/10.22320/07190700.2019.09.02.07

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