The effect of natural weathering on untreated wood surface

Main Article Content

Eliška Oberhofnerová Miloš Pánek Alba García-Cimarras

Abstract

As a result of contemporary ecological and sustainable movements, a number of constructions from wood, as the only renewable building material, is still increasing. In accordance with these trends, wood elements are often left untreated. The presented study is aimed to characterize and compare a surface degradation of untreated wood caused by weathering. Weathering characteristics of softwoods and hardwoods (spruce, pine, Douglas fir, larch, oak, black locust, maple, poplar and alder) during twelve months of exposure in the climatic conditions of Central Europe were determined. All the wood species were characterized by colour and gloss changes and increasing roughness. The lowest discoloration was observed for oak and the highest one for spruce wood, respectively. The lowest changes of roughness were observed for alder, the highest for spruce wood. The depth of colour changes was relatively similar among the softwoods. Regarding hardwoods, it varied more. The values of total colour changes had a significant correlation with the depth values of these colour changes. Maple, alder and poplar samples were characterized by the presence of mould and blue-stain fungi. Douglas fir wood was found to be the most liable for the formation of cracks.

Article Details

How to Cite
OBERHOFNEROVÁ, Eliška; PÁNEK, Miloš; GARCÍA-CIMARRAS, Alba. The effect of natural weathering on untreated wood surface. Maderas. Ciencia y Tecnología, [S.l.], v. 19, n. 2, p. 173-184, mar. 2017. ISSN 0718-221X. Available at: <http://revistas.ubiobio.cl/index.php/MCT/article/view/2754>. Date accessed: 24 sep. 2017.
Keywords
Central Europe; colour changes; natural weathering; surface roughness; untreated wood.
Section
Article

References

Brischke, Ch.; Bayerbach, R.; Otto Rapp, A. 2006. Decay-influencing factors: A basis for service life prediction of wood and wood-based products. Wood Material Science and Engineering 1:91-107. DOI: 10.1080/17480270601019658.

Czech University of Life Scences. 2015. Meteostation of the Faculty of Agronomy – Department of Agroecology and Biometeorology. Prague, Czech Republic. [Available from]< http:// meteostanice.agrobiologie.cz>

CIE. 1986. Colorimetry. 2nd Edition, CIE Pub. No. 15.2, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Vienna, Austria, 74 pp. ISBN: 3-900-734-00-3.

ČSN 49 0108. 1993. Drevo. Zisťovanie hustoty [Wood. Determination of the density]. In Czech.

Dawson, B.; Singh, A.; Kroese, H.W.; Schwitzer, M. A.; Gallagher, S.; Riddiough, S.J.; Wu, S. 2008. Enhancing exterior performance of clear coatings through photostabilization of wood. Part 2: coating and weathering performance. Journal of Coatings Technology and Research 5(2):207-219. DOI: 10.1007/s11998-008-9090-z.

EN 350-2. 1994. Durability of wood and wood-based products. Natural durability of solid wood, Part 2: Guide to natural durability and treatability of selected wood species of importance in Europe. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels.

EN 927-3. 2006. Paints and varnishes. Coating materials and coating system for exterior wood, Part 3: Natural weathering test. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels.

EN ISO 4287. 1997. Geometrical product specifications (GPS). Surface texture. Profile method. Terms, definitions and surface texture parameters. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.

EN ISO 4288. 1996. Geometrical product specifications (GPS). Surface texture. Profile method. Rules and procedures for the assessment of surface texture. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.

Evans, P.D. 1996. The influence of season and angle of exposure on the weathering of wood. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 54(3):200-200. DOI: 10.1007/s001070050166.

Evans, P.D. 2008. Weathering and photo-degradation of wood. Development of Wood Preservative Systems, ACS Symposium Series, American Chemical Society (ACS), Washington, DC, USA, pp. 69-117. ISBN: 0-8412-3951-7.

Evans, P.D.; Michell, A. J.; Schmalzl, K. J. 1992. Studies of the degradation and protection of wood surfaces. Wood Science and Technology 26(2):151-163. DOI: 10.1007/BF00194471.

Feist, W.C. 1982. Weathering of wood in structural uses. Structural uses of wood in adverse environments, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, pp 156-178.

Feist, W.C. 1990. Outdoor wood weathering and protection. Advanced in Chemistry, Series No. 225. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society 263-298, Chapter 11. DOI: 10.1021/ba-1990-0225. ch011.

Feist, W.C.; Hon, D.S. 1984. Chemistry of weathering and protection. Advances in chemistry series (207):401-451. DOI: 10.1021/ba-1984-0207.ch011.

Gonzalez de Cademartori, P.H.; Missio, A. L.; Dufau Mattos, B.; Gatto, D. A. 2015. Natural weathering performance of three fast-growing Eucalypt woods. Maderas- Cienc Tecnol 17(4): 799- 808. DOI: 10.4067/S0718-221X2015005000069.

Hon, D.N.S.; Shiraishi, N. 2001. Wood and cellulose chemistry. New York und Basel: Marcel Dekker Inc. 914 p. ISBN: 0824700244.

Hon, D.N.S.; Chang, S.T. 1984. Surface degradation of wood by ultraviolet light. Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Chemistry Edition 22(9):2227-2241. DOI: 10.1002/pol.1984.170220923.

Hon, D.N.S.; Chang, S.T.; Feist, W.C. 1985. Protection of wood surfaces against photooxidation. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 30(4): 1429-1448. DOI: 10.1002/app.1985.070300410.

Hon, D.S.; Feist, W.C. 1986. Weathering characteristics of hardwood surfaces. Wood Science and Technology 20(2):169-183.

Kataoka, Y.; Kiguchi, M.; Williams, R.S.; Evans, P.D. 2007. Violet light causes photodegradation of wood beyond the zone affected by ultraviolet radiation. Holzforschung 61(1):23-27. DOI: 10.1515/ HF.2007.005.

Kropf, F.W.; Sell, J.; Feist, W.C. 1994. Comparative weathering tests of North American and European exterior wood finishes. Forest Products Journal 44(10):33-41.

Macleod, I.T.; Scully, A. D.; Ghiggino, K. P.; Ritchie, P. J. A.; Paravagna, O. M.; Leary, B. 1995. Photodegradation at the wood-clearcoat interface. Wood Science and Technology 29(3): 183-189. DOI: 10.1007/BF00204584.

Mohebby, B.; Saei, A.M. 2015. Effects of geographical directions and climatological parameters on natural weathering of fir wood. Construction and Building Materials 94:684-690. DOI: 10.1016/j. conbuildmat.2015.07.049.

Müller, U.; Rätzsch, M.; Schwanninger, M.; Steiner, M.; Zöbl, H. 2003. Yellowing and IRchanges of spruce wood as result of UV-irradiation. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 69(2):97-105. DOI: 10.1016/S1011-1344(02)00412-8.

Nzokou, P.; Kamdem, D. P.; Temiz, A. 2011. Effect of accelerated weathering on discoloration and roughness of finished ash wood surfaces in comparison with red oak and hard maple. Progress in Organic Coatings 71(4):350-354. DOI: 10.1016/j.porgcoat.2011.03.028

Östman, B. L. 1983. Surface roughness of wood-based panels after aging. Forest Products Journal 33(7/8):35-42.

Ozgenc, O.; Hiziroglu, S.; Yildiz, U. C. 2012. Weathering properties of wood species treated with different coating applications. BioResources 7(4): 4875-4888. DOI: 10.15376/biores.7.4.4875-4888.

Ozgenc, O.; Okan, O.T.; Yildiz, U.C.; Deniz, I. 2013. Wood surface protection against artificial weathering with vegetable seed oils. BioResources 8(4): 6242-6262. DOI: 10.15376/ biores.8.4.6242-6262.

Pandey, K. K. 2005. A note on the influence of extractives on the photo-discoloration and photo-degradation of wood. Polymer Degradation and Stability 87(2): 375-379. DOI: 10.1016/j. polymdegradstab.2004.09.007.

Reinprecht, L. 2008. Ochrana dreva [Wood protection]. Handbook. Technical University in Zvolen-Slovakia. ISBN: 978-80-228-1863-6.

Rowell, R. M. 2012. Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites. CRC press.

Saei, A.M.; Mohebby, B.; Abdeh, M.R. 2015. Effects of oleothermal treatment and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating on natural weathering of beech and fir woods. Maderas- Cienc Tecnol 17(4):905-918. DOI: 10.4067/S0718-221X2015005000079.

Singh, T.; Singh, A.P. 2012. A review on natural products as wood protectant. Wood Science and Technology 46(5):851-870.

Teacà, C.A.; Rosu, D.; Bodîrlàu, R.; Rosu, L. 2013. Structural changes in wood under artificial UV light irradiation by FTIR spectroscopy and color measurements - a brief review. BioResources 8(1):1478-1507. DOI: 10.15376/biores.8.1.1478-1507.

Temiz, A.; Yildiz, U.C.; Aydin, I.; Eikenes, M.; Alfredsen, G.; Çolakoglu, G. 2005. Surface roughness and color characteristics of wood treated with preservatives after accelerated weathering test. Applied Surface Science 250(1):35-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2004.12.019.

Tolvaj, L.; Faix, O. 1995. Artificial ageing of wood monitored by DRIFT spectroscopy and CIE L* a* b* color measurements. 1. Effect of UV light. Holzforschung 49(5):397-404. DOI: 10.1515/ hfsg.1995.49.5.397.

Tolvaj, L.; Molnar, Z.; Magoss, E. 2014. Measurement of photodegradation-caused roughness of wood using a new optical method. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 134:23-26. DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2014.03.020.

Tolvaj, L.; Papp, G. 1999. Outdoor weathering of impregnated and steamed black locust. ICWSF’99 conference, Missenden Abbey (UK), pp. 112-115.

Turkoglu, T.; Baysal, E.; Toker, H. 2015. The Effects of Natural Weathering on Color Stability of Impregnated and Varnished Wood Materials. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 526570, 9 pages. DOI: 10.1155/2015/526570.

Williams, R.S.; Feist, W.C. 1999. Water repellents and water-repellent preservatives for wood (Vol. 109). Forest Products Laboratory.

Williams, R.S.; Knaebe, M.T.; Feist, W.C. 2001. Erosion rates of wood during natural weathering. Part II. Earlywood and latewood erosion rates. Wood and Fiber Science 33(1):43-49.

Williams, R.S. 2005. Weathering of wood. Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites. . Madison: CRC Press. ISBN: 1439853800.

Xie, Y.; Krause, A.; Militz, H.; Mai, C. 2008. Weathering of uncoated and coated wood treated with methylated 1, 3-dimethylol-4, 5-dihydroxyethyleneurea (mDMDHEU). Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff 66(6):455-464. DOI: 10.1007/s00107-008-0270-4.