Comparison of two kiln-drying schedules for turkish hazel (Corylus colurna) lumber of 5-cm thickness

  • Süleyman KORKUT
  • Nusreta AS
  • Ümit BÜYÜKSARI

Abstract

Turkish hazel (Corylus colurna) lumber with a nominal thickness of 5 cm from the Kastamonu region, Turkey, was dried through conventional kiln drying using two different programs, a non-protective drying schedule and a protective drying schedule. The goal of the study was to obtain a kiln schedule that would maintain wood quality and also save drying time until a final moisture content of 8 ± 2% was reached. The intensity of warping (twisting, bowing, cupping, crooking), superficial, internal, and end checks, residual stresses, drying rate, and moisture gradient of the dried woods were measured, and the results were evaluated according to the classification of the European Drying Group. The results showed a more homogeneous moisture profile, fewer occurrences of superficial checks, and an absence of internal checks when using the protective drying schedule due to low warping values compared with those for the non-protective drying schedule. From the point of view of energy efficiency, by saving 60 h of drying time, the non-protective schedule reduced electricity by 960 KWh and was therefore more profitable by $105.60 in this trial. Therefore, it seems that the protective drying schedule should be recommended as the optimum program for drying Turkish hazel lumber from the Kastamonu region at the commercial scale.

References

Boone, R.S.; Kozlik, C.J.; Bois, P.J.; Wengert, E.M. 1988. Dry Kiln Schedules for Commercial Woods Temperate and Tropical. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL GTR 57. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.

E.D.G. 1992. Recommendation on Assessment of Drying Quality of Timber, European Drying Group, Hamburg, Germany.

Eşen, D.; Yildiz, O.; Kulaç, Ş.; Sargıncı, M. 2005. Türkiye ormanlarının ihmal edilen değerli yapraklı türü: Yabani kiraz, TBMMO Orman Mühendisleri Odası Dergisi, Sayı:2, Sayfa: 18-22.

Kantay, R. 1978. Studies on Kiln Drying Properties of Some Important Forest Tree Species in Turkey (I.U. Publication No. 2491; Faculty of Forestry Publication No. 269); Istanbul, (in Turkish).

Kantay, R.; Ünsal, Ö.; Korkut, S. 2002. Drying Problems of Fast Growing Tree Species: Evaluation of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.) Wood, Proceedings International IUFRO Meeting Management of Fast Growing Plantations, DİV.4.04.06, İzmit, Turkey, September 11-13, 2002; 208-212.

Khorsandalam, M. 2001. Establishing a kiln drying schedule for maple lumber 5 cm in thickness, Thesis presented for the Degree of Master of Science, Tarbiat Modares University (in Persian).

Korkut, S.; Güller, B. 2007. Comparison of two drying schedules for European Hophornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia Scop.) lumber. Drying Technology 25(12): 1977-1984.

Korkut, S.; Güller, B.; Budakçı, M. 2007. Kiln Drying Properties of Red-bud Maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) Lumber, Proceedings 10th International IUFRO Division 5 Wood Drying Conference, Understanding and Modeling the Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Drying Solid Wood and Wood Based Materials, Orono, Maine, USA, August 26–30, 2007; 139-146.

Korkut, S.; Keskin, H.; Ünsal, Ö.; Bajraktari, A. 2010. Kiln Drying Properties of Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) Lumber, 11th International IUFRO Wood Drying Conference, Recent Advances in the Field of Wood Drying, Skellefteå, Sweden, January 18-22, 2010; 200-207.

Korkut, S.; Unsal, Ö.; Kocaefe, D.; Aytin, A.; Gökyar, A. 2013. Evaluation of kiln-drying schedules for wild cherry wood (Cerasus avium). Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 15(3): 281-292.

Korkut, S.; Hiziroglu, S. 2009. Effect of heat treatment on mechanical properties of hazelnut wood (Corylus columa L.). Materials and Design 30(5): 1853-1858.

Lempelius, J. 1969. Die Schnittholztrocknung, Robert Hildebrand Maschinenbau GmbH, Oberboihingen-Württ.

Oltean, L.; Teischinger, A.; Hansmann, C. 2011. Influence of low and moderate temperature kiln drying schedules on specific mechanical properties of Norway spruce wood. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 69: 451-457.

Rahimi, S.; Ebrahimi, G.; Parsapajouh, D.; Tarmian, A.; Mansouryar, I. 2011. Preparation of a kiln drying schedule for poplar (Populus nigra) lumber of 5 cm thickness. Iranian Journal of Wood and Paper Industries 1(2): 13-25.

Rrezaei, V.T.; Hoseinpour, Y. 2012. Establishing kiln drying schedule for beech (Fagus orientalis) at 5-cm thickness from the Neka Region. Drying Technology 30(3): 230-235.

Shahverdi, M.; Dashti, H.; Hossein, M. H. 2012a. Establishing a kiln drying schedule for poplar (P. alba) lumber of 7 cm thickness. BioResources 7(1): 26-37.

Shahverdi, M.; Tarmian, A.; Dashti, H.; Ebrahimi, G.; Tajvidi, M. 2012b. Mechanical properties of poplar wood (Populus alba) dried by three kiln drying schedules. BioResources 7(1): 1092-1099.

Sevim Korkut, D.; Korkut, S.; Bekar, I.; Budakçi, M.; Dilik, T.; Çakliclier, N. 2008. The effects of heat treatment on the physical properties and surface roughness of Turkish hazel (Corylus colurna L.) wood. International Journal of Molecular Sciences (IJMS) 9(9): 1772-1783.

Simpson, W. T. 1991. Dry Kiln Operator’s Manual. Agriculture Handbook AH-188, Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.

Simpson, W.T. 1996. Method to Estimate Dry-Kiln Schedules and Species Groupings: Tropical and Temperate Hardwoods; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory: Madison, WI.

Tari, S.M.M.; Madhoushi, M. 2013. Establishing a kiln drying schedule for Paulownia fortunei lumber with thickness of 5 cm. World of Sciences Journal Vol. 1 (April Special Issue), 25-38.

Tenorio, C.; Moya, R.; Quesada-Pineda, H.J. 2012. Kiln drying of Acacia mangium wood: colour, shrinkage, warp, split and check in dried lumber. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 24(1): 125-139.

TGL 21504, 1969. Technische Trocknung von Schnittholz, Güte und Prüfung des Getrockneten Holzes (DDR-Standard).

Unsal, O. 1994. Studies on kiln drying properties of walnut lumber, Master’s thesis; Istanbul University Institute of Science, Turkey (in Turkish with English summary).

Unsal, Ö.; Kantay, R. 2009. Drying and Using Properties of Chestnut Wood. ISHS Acta Horticulturae, International Workshop on Chestnut Management in Mediterranean Countries - Problems and Prospects, 815, 179-184.

Yaltirik F, Efe A. 2000. Dendrology Handbook, Gymnospermae–Angiospermea, University of Istanbul Publication No. 4265, Faculty of Forestry Publication No. 465.
Published
2017-10-26
How to Cite
KORKUT, Süleyman; AS, Nusreta; BÜYÜKSARI, Ümit. Comparison of two kiln-drying schedules for turkish hazel (Corylus colurna) lumber of 5-cm thickness. Maderas. Ciencia y Tecnología, [S.l.], v. 20, n. 1, oct. 2017. ISSN 0718-221X. Available at: <http://revistas.ubiobio.cl/index.php/MCT/article/view/3015>. Date accessed: 18 nov. 2017.