Encapsulation of precipitated calcium carbonate fillers using carboxymethyl cellulose /polyaluminium chloride: preparation and its influence on mechanical and optical properties of paper

  • Hasan Mousavipazhouh
  • Mohammad Azadfallah
  • Iman Rashidi Jouybari
Keywords: Brightness, filler modification, hand-sheets properties, Kraft pulp, opacity, paper strength

Abstract

Inorganic fillers are usually used in papermaking industry to reduce production costs and enhance paper optical properties. As an attempt to improve fillers application in papermaking, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and poly aluminum chloride (PAC) were used to encapsulate precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) filler and modify its surfaces. In the first step, the optimum conditions for filler treatment (i.e. pH, CMC and PAC contents) were obtained. Through the second step, different amounts of CMC-encapsulated PCC were added to fiber suspension and some hand-sheets were made. Then, the effect of modified filler addition in different levels of 20, 25, and 35% on mechanical and optical properties of paper was investigated. The PAC dosage was found to be a critical factor for effective encapsulation of PCC fillers by carboxymethyl cellulose. When the dosages of CMC and PAC were 4% and 0.8% (based on the dry weight of PCC), respectively, filler modification caused to improve significantly the retention by more than twice.  Strength properties of the hand-sheets fabricated with the CMC/PAC-modified PCC were also found to be significantly better than those obtained with the unmodified PCC at similar levels of filler content. In addition, the brightness and opacity of the filled papers at 30% addition of CMC-modified fillers were strikingly enhanced to 88.45 and 77%, respectively. SEM observations of the filled papers also demonstrated that CMC-encapsulated filler particles were clustered and retained efficiently onto the fiber network. The present method for modification of PCC may provide an alternative approach to increase the filler amount in the paper structure by alleviating filler drawbacks.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

AKEEM-AZEEZ, M.; ANDREW, J. E.; SITHOLE, B. B. 2016. A preliminary investigation of nigerian Gmelina arborea and Bambusa vulgaris for pulp and paper production. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 18(1):65-78.

BRATSKAYA, S.; SCHWARZ, S.; PETZOLD, G.; LIEBERT, T.; HEINZE, T. 2006. Cationic starches of high degree of functionalization: 12. Modification of cellulose fibers toward high filler technology in papermaking. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 45(22): 7374-7379.

CASEY, J.P. 1981. Pulp and Paper Chemistry and Technology. (3rd Ed., Vol. 3), John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, USA.

CHEN, X.N.; HUANG, R.X.; PELTON, R. 2005. The reinforcement of calcium carbonate filed papers with phosphorous-containing polymers. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 44(7): 2078-2085.

DENG, Y.L.; RAGAUSKAS, A.J.; WHITE, D.; YOON, S. 2008. US Patent No. 20080087396. Washington, DC, USA: US Patent Office.

DONG, C.; SONG, D.; PATTERSON, T. 2008. Energy saving in papermaking through filler addition. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 47: 8430–8435.
FAHMY, T.Y.A. 2007. Introducing molasses as a new additive in papermaking. TAPPI Journal 6(8): 23-25.

FAHMY, T.Y.A.; MOBARAK, F. 2009. Advanced nano-based manipulations of molasses in the cellulose and paper discipline: Introducing a master cheap environmentally safe retention aid and strength promoter in papermaking. Carbohydrate Polymers 77(2): 316-319.

FOSSO-KANKEU, E.; WEBSTER, A.; NTWAMPE, I.O.; WAANDERS, F.B. 2017. Coagulation/flocculation potential of polyaluminium chloride and Bentonite clay tested in the removal of methyl red and crystal violet. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 42:1389–1397.

FATEHI, P.; KITITERAKUN, R.; Ni, Y.; XIAO, H. 2010. Synergy of CMC and modified chitosan on strength properties of cellulosic fiber network. Carbohydrate Polymer 80(1): 208-214.

GAUDREAULT, R.; DI CESARE, N.; WEITZ, D.,; VAN DE VEN, T.G. 2009. Flocculation kinetics of precipitated calcium carbonate. Colloids and surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 340: 56-65.

GILL, R.A. 1992. Cationic polymer-modified filler material, process for its preparation and method of its use in papermaking. U. S. Patent No. US5147507 A.

HU, Z.; DENG, Y. 2004. Synthesis of needle like aragonite from calcium chloride and sparingly soluble magnesium carbonate. Powder Technology 140:10-16.

IBRAHIM, M.A.; MOBARAK, F.; EL-DIN, E.I.S.; EBAID, A.E.E.; YOUSSEF, M. A. 2009. Modified Egyptian talc as international and surface treatments for papermaking. TAPPI Journal 8(4): 15-22.

KANG, T. 2007. Role of External Fibrillation in Pulp and Paper Properties, Ph.D. Dissertation, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland.

KLUNGNESS, J.H.; AHMED, A.; ROSS-SUTHERLAND, N.; ABU BAKR, S. 2000. Lightweight, high-opacity paper by fiber loading: Filler comparison. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal 15: 345–350.

LALEG, M.; COLLINS, R.; GAGNE, D.; MIDDLETON, S. 2008. Latex-treated filler slurries¬¬¬ for use in papermaking. WIPO Patent Application WO/2008/148204, Dec. 11.

LOURENCO, A.F.; GAMELAS, J.A. F.; FERREIRA, P. J. 2014. Increase of the filler content in papermaking by using a silica-coated PCC filler. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal 29 (2): 242-27.

MARZBANI, P.; RESALATI, H.; GHASEMIAN, A; SHAKERI, A. 2016. Surface modification of talc particles with phthalimide: study of composite structure and consequences on physical, mechanical, and optical properties of deinked pulp. BioResources 11(4): 8720-8738.

MATHUR, V.K. 2004. Multi-phase calcium silicate hydrates, methods for their reparation, and improved paper and pigment products produced therewith. U.S. Patent No. US6726807B1.

MOLLAAHMAD, M.A. 2008. Sustainable fillers for paper, M. Sc. Thesis, Lulea University of Technology, Sweden.

NASIR, N.; DAUD, Z. 2014. Performance of aluminum sulphate and polyaluminium chloride in biodiesel wastewater. Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences (JMES) 7: 1189-1195.

NELSON, K; DENG, Y. 2008. Enhanced bondability between inorganic particles and a polysaccharide substrate by encapsulation with regenarted cellulose. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 107:2830-2836.

OKAN, O. T.; DENIZ, I.; TIRYAKI, S. 2015. Application of artificial neural networks for predicting tensile index and brightness in bleaching pulp. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 17(3): 571 – 584.

SHEN, J.; SONG, Z.; QIAN, X.; LIU, W. 2009. Modification of papermaking grade fillers: A brief review. BioResources 4(3): 1190-1209.

SHEN, J.; SONG, Z.; QIAN, X.; LIU, W.; YANG, F. 2010. Fillers and the carbon footprint of papermaking. BioResources 5 (4):2026-2028.

SONG, D.; DONG, C.; RAGAUSKAS, A.J.; and DENG, Y. 2009a. Filler modification engineering for improved paper properties and papermaking process. In: TAPPI 2nd Annual Paper Conference: Solutions for a Changing World, St. Louis, USA.

SONG, D.; DONG, C.; RAGAUSKAS, A.J.; and DENG, Y. 2009b. Filler modification with polysaccharides or their derivatives for improved paper properties. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy 3(4): 321-334.

SUBRAMANIAN, R.; FORDSMAND, H.; PAULAPURO, H. 2007. Precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC)-cellulose composite fillers: Effect of pcc particle morphology on the production and properties of uncoated fine paper. BioResources 2: 91–105.

SUBRAMANIAN, R.; FORDSMAND, H.; PALTAKARI, J.; PAULAPURO, H. 2008. A new composite fine paper with high filler loading and functional cellulosic microfines. Journal of Pulp and Paper Science 34: 146–152.

VENGIMALLA, R.; CHASE, G.G.; RAMARAO, B. V. 1999. Modeling of filler retention in compressible fibrous media. Separation and Purification Technology 15: 153-161.

YAN, Z.; LIU, Q.; DENG, Y. 2005. Improvement of paper strength with starch modified clay. Journal of Applied Polymer Sciences 97: 44–50.

YANG, H.; QIU, L.; QIAN, X.; SHEN, J. 2013. Filler Modification for Papermaking with Cationic Starch and Carboxymethyl Cellulose: A Comparative Study. BioResources 8(4): 5449-5460.

YOON, S.Y.; DENG, Y. 2007. Experimental and modeling study of the strength properties of clay-starch composite filled papers. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 46(14): 4883-4890.

ZHAO, Y.; HU, Z.; RAGAUSKAS, A.J.; DENG, Y. 2005. Improvement of paper properties using starch-modified precipitated calcium carbonate filler. TAPPI Journal 4(2): 3-7.

ZHAO, Y.; KIM, D.; WHITE, D. 2008. Developing a new paradigm for linerboard fillers. TAPPI Journal 7: 3–7.
Published
2018-10-01
How to Cite
Mousavipazhouh, H., Azadfallah, M., & Rashidi Jouybari, I. (2018). Encapsulation of precipitated calcium carbonate fillers using carboxymethyl cellulose /polyaluminium chloride: preparation and its influence on mechanical and optical properties of paper. Maderas. Ciencia Y Tecnología, 20(4), 703-714. Retrieved from http://revistas.ubiobio.cl/index.php/MCT/article/view/3268
Section
Article