Contribution of extractives to the bark color of Caesalpinia sappan


  • Brandon Purba Universitas Gadjah Mada. Faculty of Forestry. Department of Forest Products Technology. Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
  • Masendra Masendra Universitas Gadjah Mada. Vocational College. Department of Bioresources and Veterinary Technology. Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
  • Rini Pujiarti Universitas Gadjah Mada. Faculty of Forestry. Department of Forest Products Technology. Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
  • Ganis Lukmandaru Universitas Gadjah Mada. Vocational College. Department of Bioresources and Veterinary Technology. Yogyakarta, Indonesia.



Caesalpinia sappan, CIELab, color measurement, hydroquinone, pH, wood extractives, Ultraviolet-Visible


The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of Caesalpinia sappan (sappan wood) bark extractives by analyzing color change of the bark after extraction and the color of the extracts with several color measurement methods. Successive extraction was performed with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and hot water. Color change of the bark was measured using CIELab color system and the extracts were analyzed with Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer, total phenolic content (TPC), and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the highest change on the bark color after methanol extraction with the Δa* and Δb* values of -2,53 ± 0,60 and -3,64 ± 1,20 respectively. Also, methanol extract showed the highest total phenolic content (860,24 ± 30,19 mg GAE/g). In addition, the Ultraviolet-Visible is analysis showed a peak at 478 nm in the hot-water soluble extract and two peaks in the methanol soluble extract at 396 nm and 478 nm. Hydroquinone was detected as one of the major compounds by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in the methanol soluble extract. It was suggested that the color of Caesalpinia sappan (sappan wood) bark as well as the deep red coloration of its extract might be contributed by multiple phenolic compounds contained in the methanol extract with hydroquinone as its precursor. Therefore, it is also a potential source for coloring matter.


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Author Biographies

Brandon Purba, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Faculty of Forestry. Department of Forest Products Technology. Yogyakarta, Indonesia.


Masendra Masendra, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Vocational College. Department of Bioresources and Veterinary Technology. Yogyakarta, Indonesia.


Rini Pujiarti, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Faculty of Forestry. Department of Forest Products Technology. Yogyakarta, Indonesia.


Ganis Lukmandaru, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Vocational College. Department of Bioresources and Veterinary Technology. Yogyakarta, Indonesia.



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How to Cite

Purba, B. ., Masendra, M. ., Pujiarti, R. ., & Lukmandaru, G. . (2024). Contribution of extractives to the bark color of Caesalpinia sappan. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol, 26.