Physical properties of palmyra palm wood for sustainable utilization as a structural material
Keywords:Borassus aethiopum, density, dimensional, moisture, palmyra, stability, structural
Physical properties are major characteristics that validate biomaterials' adaptability to commercial utilization. The moisture content, density, swelling, and shrinkage within male and female Borassus aethiopum were assessed. Green and dry moisture content, and density were tested with the oven-dry method while swelling and shrinkage were evaluated using the water-saturation test and oven-dry methods respectively. Unlike moisture content, density decreased towards the crowns and radially from the peripheries to their cores. Directional swelling decreased as: Radial > Tangential > Longitudinal. Volumetric swelling was greatest at the core of the base (6,99 %) but at least at the periphery within the middle of the male (2,89 %). However, the female recorded much swelling at the core of its mid-portion (6,23 %) and least (4,01 %) at the crown periphery. Directional shrinkage decreased identically as the male variety while the volumetric shrinkage for both varieties was not consistent. The peripheries had less moisture content, better dimensional stability and density (which influences wood strength) at the butt than those of the core indicating the peripheries would maintain its original dimension and strength when subjected to environmental changes and be more viable for structural works than the core.
Acheampong, J.B.; Effah, B.; Achana, E.W.; Antwi, K. 2020. The Effects of Chemical Compositional Variability on Sustainable Applications of Borassus aethiopum Trunks. IJFWS 7(2): 080-088. https://premierpublishers.org/ijfws/150520205108
Ajuziogu, G.C.; Amujiri, A.N.; Njoku1, E.U.; Ozokolie, C.B.; Ojua, E.O. 2020. Determination of Swelling and Dimensional Stability of Some Nigerian Timber Species. Annu Res Rev Biol 35(1): 24-29. https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i130177
Akpan, M.; Anametemfiok, V.; Ijomah, J.U. 1999. Dimensional changes of wood in service: Potential of Eribroma Oblonga for interior decorations. J Techn Dev 7: 6-11.
Antwi, K. 2012. The variability between the strength and some physical properties of Allanblackia parviflora for furniture production. Master of Science Thesis, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. https://hdl.handle.net/123456789/5308
Asafu-Adjaye, O. 2011. Characterization of the Physico-Mechanical properties of the different zones of Borassus aethiopum (Mmaa Kube). Master of Philosophy Thesis, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science. http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/5309
American Society for Testing Materials. 2006. ASTM D1037-06a: Test methods for evaluating properties of wood-base fiber and particle panel materials. Linear expansion with change in moisture content. ASTM. West Conshohocken, PA, USA.
Ayarkwa, J. 1997. Potentials for Utilization of Borassus aethiopum (Fan palm) in construction in Ghana. Wood News 6(4): 15–18.
Bakar, E.S.; Hermawan, D.; Karlina, S.; Rachman, O.; Rosdiana, N. 1998. Utilization of oil palm trees as building and furniture material (1): physical and chemical properties and durability of oil palm trunk. Jurnal Teknologi Hasil Hutan 9(1): 1-12.
Belleville, B.; Lancelot, K.; Galore, E.; Ozarska, B. 2020. Assessment of physical and mechanical properties of Papua New Guinea timber species. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 22(1): 3-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-221X2020005000101
Boadu, K.B.; Antwi-Boasiako, C.; Frimpong-Mensah, K. 2017. Physical and mechanical properties of Klainedoxa gabonesis with engineering potential. J For Res 28(3): 629–636. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-016-0331-1
Bossu, J.; Beauchene, J.; Estevez, Y.; Duplais, C.; Clair, B. 2016. New Insight on Wood Dimensional Stability Influence by Secondary Metabolites: The Case of a Fast – Growing Tropical Species Bagassa guianensis Aubl. PLOS ONE 11(3): e0150777. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150777
Bowyer, L.J.; Shmulsky, R.; Haygreen, G.J. 2003. Forest Products and Wood Science. Blackwell Publishing Company, 4th Edition, Iowa, U.S.A. https://www.amazon.com/Forest-Products-Wood-Science-Introduction/dp/0813820367
Chamberlain, J.L.; Bush, R.J.; Hammett, A.L.; Araman, P.A. 2000. Managing national forests of the eastern United States for non-timber forest products. In Proceedings XXI IUFRO World Congress 2000, Forests and Society: The Role of Research. 1: 407-420. https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/1976
Eckelman, C.A. 2020. The shrinking and swelling of wood and its effect on furniture. Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN., USA. https://extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/FNR/FNR-163.pdf
Effah, B. 2012. Development of kiln-drying schedules and within tree variability in the physical properties of two lesser-known timber species in Ghana. Master of Science Thesis, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. 163 pp. http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/5301
Erwinsyah, S.H. 2008. Improvement of oil palm trunk properties using bio resin. Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Technische University Dresden, Germany. https://www.qucosa.de/fileadmin/data/qucosa/documents/608/12118806949533697
Food and Agriculture Organization. 1985. Coconut Wood Processing and Use. Rome, Italy. http://www.fao.org/3/an792e/an792e00.pdf
Fathi, L. 2014. Structural, mechanical properties and potential use of timber from coconut, oil and date palm trees. Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, Centre of Wood Science, University of Hamburg. Germany. https://ediss.sub.uni-hamburg.de/volltexte/2014/6922/pdf/Dissertation.pdf
Glass, S.V.; Zelinka, S.L. 2010. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material: chapter 4. Centennial ed. General technical report FPL; GTR – 190. Madison, WI: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Product Laboratory, 2010: p. 4.1 – 4. 19. https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/37428
Gryc, V.; Horácek, P. 2007. Variability in density of spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) Wood with the presence of reaction wood. J For Sci 53(3): 129-137. https://doi.org/10.17221/2146-JFS
Jatau, D. 2008. Profitability Assessment of Borassus aethiopum (Mart) Marketing in Adamawa State, Nigeria. J Agri Soc Sci 4(4): 159–64.
Killman, W.; Choon, L.S. 1985. Anatomy and properties of oil palm stem. PORIM Bulliten 11, Institut Penyelidikan Minyak Kelapa Sawit Malaysia. Pp 25.
Kimberley, M.O.; McKinley, R.B.; Cown, D.J.; Moore, J.R. 2017. Modelling the variation in wood density of New Zealand-grown Douglas-fir. NZJ For Sci 47(15): 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40490-017-0096-0
Kirk, K.T.; Culen, D. 1998. Enzymology and Molecular Genetics of Wood Degradation by White Rot Fungi. In Environmentally Friendly Technologies for the Pulp and Paper lndustry. Young, R.A., Akhtar, M. (editors). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Pp. 273 - 308.15 - 20p. https://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/pdf1998/kirk98a.pdf
Kollmann, F.; Côté, W. 1984. Principles of wood science and technology. Volume I: Solid wood. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Germany. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-642-87928-9
Koubaa, A.; Hernandez, R.E.; Beaudoin, M.; Palanquin, J. 1998. Inter clonal and within - tree variation in fibre length of poplar hybrid clones. Wood Fiber Sci 30(1): 40-47. https://wfs.swst.org/index.php/wfs/article/view/1990
Li, X.; Leavengood, S.; Cappellazzi, J.; Morrell, J.J. 2018. Laboratory decay resistance of Palmyra palm wood. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 20(3): 353-358. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-221X2018005003601
Lim, S.C.; Khoo, K. 1986. Characteristics of oil palm trunk and its potential utilization. The Malaysian Forester 49(1): 3-22.
Mantanis, G.I.; Young, R.A.; Rowell, R.M. 1994. Swelling of wood. Wood Sci Technol 28: 119–134. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00192691
Millennium Seed Bank Project. 2007. Delivering Target 8 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. https://www.kew.org/science/our-science/projects/banking-the-worlds-seeds
Origin software. 2010. Origin Pro 8.5 OriginLab Corporation. https://www.originlab.com/index.aspx?go=Company/NewsAndEvents/PressRoom&pid=1720
Panshin, A.J.; de Zeeuw, C. 1980. Textbook of Wood Technology: Structure, identification, properties, and uses of the commercial woods of the United States and Canada. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill Series in Forest Resources. New York, USA.
Phillips, O.L.; Sullivan, M.J.P.; Baker, T.R.; Mendoza, A.M.; Vargas, P.N.; Vásquez, R. 2019. Species Matter: Wood Density Influences Tropical Forest Biomass at Multiple Scales. Surv Geophys 40: 913–935. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10712-019-09540-0
Prayitno, T.A. 1995. Trunk shape and physical properties of oil palm trunk. Bulletin Fak. Publication Limited, London. 65pp. In Proceedings from the World Conference on Timber Engineering, Quebec, Canada.
Romulo, N.; Arancon, Jr. 1997. Asia Pacific forestry sector outlook study: Focus on coconut wood. Forestry Police and Planning Division, Rome Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok. http://www.fao.org/3/w7731e/w7731e00.htm
Shupe, T.F.; Choog, E.T.; Gibson, M.D. 1995. Differences in moisture content and shrinkage between outer wood, middle wood and core wood of two yellow Poplar trees. Forest Prod J 45(9): 85-90. https://europepmc.org/article/agr/ind20509195
Timber Export Development Board. TED. 1994. Timber Export Development Board. Takoradi, Ghana and London, UK. 87pp.
Tropenbos International-Ghana. 2005. Restoration and sustainable management of forest in Ghana. In Proceedings of Tropenbos International-Ghana Workshop Proceedings, Kumasi, Ghana Tropical Forest, Ghana, from July 5-7, 2005. https://www.tropenbos.org/resources/publications/restoration+and+sustainable+management+of+forests+in+ghana.+proceedings+of+an+international+conference+held+in+elmina,+ghana,+from+july+5-7,+2005.
Watson, J.E.M.; Evans, T.; Venter, O.; Williams, B.; Tulloch, A.; Stewart, C. 2018. The exceptional value of intact forest ecosystems. Nat Ecol Evol 2: 599–610. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-018-0490-x?proof=trueIn%EF%BB%BF
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Los autores/as conservarán sus derechos de autor y garantizarán a la revista el derecho de primera publicación de su obra, el cuál estará simultáneamente sujeto a la Licencia de Reconocimiento de Creative Commons CC-BY que permite a terceros compartir la obra siempre que se indique su autor y su primera publicación esta revista.