Wood under fresh water: Effect on the chemical properties and on decay resistance


  • Tainise V. Lourençon
  • Patrícia S. B. dos Santos
  • Jalel Labidi
  • Darci A. Gatto
  • Margarete R. F. Gonçalves


Chemical composition, decay fungi, waterlogged wood, wood extractives, wood underwater.


This study aimed to evaluate the effect of waterlogging on the chemical properties and on decay resistance of two fast-growing eucalypt species. Samples of spotted gum and rose gum wood were placed underwater and taken out at different times: after 4, 8 and 12 months. Chemical properties were performed via wet chemical quantification (Tappi standards), monomeric sugars by HPLC, and qualitative evaluation of extractives by Py-GC/MS and ATR-IR spectroscopy; biological performance was investigated using Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum rot fungi. The results showed slight changes to the chemical properties of both wood species, with an increase in lignin represented by the reduction of sugars due to waterlogging. Both species showed higher susceptibility to Gloeophyllum trabeum mainly in the sapwood, with no influence on decay resistance due the waterlogging.


Download data is not yet available.


Aguiar, A.; Ferraz, A. 2012. Effect of aqueous extracts from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora-biotreated wood on the decolorization of Azure B by Fenton-like reactions. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 74:61-66.

Ajuong, E.M.A.; Breese, M.C. 1998. Fourier Transform Infrared characterization of Pai wood (Afzelia africana Smith) extractives. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 56:139-142.

ASTM, 1999. Standard methods of testing small clear specimens of timber, ASTM: D5536-99. Annual Book of ASTM. Philadelphia.

Barbosa, L.C.D.; Maltha, C.R.A. Cruz, M.P. 2005. Composição química de extrativos lipofílicos e polares de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Revista Ciência & Engenharia 2:13-20.

Björdal, C. G.; Nilsson, T.; Daniel, G. 1999. Microbial decay of waterlogged archaeological wood found in Sweden Applicable to archaeology and conservation. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 43:63-73.

Chakar, F.S.; Ragauskas, A.J. 2004. Review of current and future softwood kraft lignin process chemistry. Industrial Crops and Products 20:131-141.

Costa, C.G.; Callado, C.H.; Coradin, V.T.R.; Carmello-Guerreiro, S.M. 2003. Xilema, in: Appezzato-Da-Gloria, B.C.-G., S. M. (Ed.), Anatomia Vegetal. UFV, Viçosa, pp. 129-154.

Costa, M.M.; Gomide, J.L.; Colodette, J.L.; Foelkel, C.E.B. 1997. Produção de polpa solúvel totalmente isenta de cloro a partir de Eucalyptus spp, CONGRESSO ANUAL DE CELULOSE E PAPEL, São Paulo, pp. 115-125.

Esteves, B.; Videira, R.; Pereira, H. 2011. Chemistry and ecotoxicity of heat-treated pine wood extractives. Wood Science and Technology 45:661-676.

Fojutowski, A.; Wróblewska, H.; Komorowicz, M.; Kropacz, A.; Noskowiak, A. Pomian, I. 2014. Changes in the properties of English oak wood (Quercus robur L.) as a result of remaining submerged in Baltic Sea waters for two years. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 86, Part B, 122-128.

Fojutowski, A.; Wróblewska, H.; Kropacz, A.; Komorowicz, M.; Noskowiak, A. 2011. Chosen properties of oak wood submerged for 6 months in the Baltic Sea. Folia Forestalia Polonica 42:17-30.

Hammel, K.E.; Kapich, A.N.; Jensen, K.A.; Ryan, Z.C. 2002. Reactive oxygen species as agents of wood decay by fungi. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 30:445-453.

Hyvönen, A.; Piltonen, P.; Niinimäki, J. 2005. Biodegradable substances in wood protection, in: JALKANEN, A.N., P. (Ed.), Sustainable use of renewable natural resources - from principles to practices. University of Helsinki Department of Forest Ecology publications.

Jensen, P.; Gregory, D.J. 2006. Selected physical parameters to characterize the state of preservation of waterlogged archaeological wood: a practical guide for their determination. Journal of Archaeological Science 33:551-559.

Kilulya, K.F.; Msagati, T.A.M.; Mamba, B.B.; Ngila, J.C.; Bush, T. 2012. Controlling the release of wood extractives into water bodies by selecting suitable eucalyptus species. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C 50-5:217-223.

Kooye, V.D. 2011. Suriname percebe vantagens nas madeiras inundadas.[on line] <http://www.oecoamazonia.com.>[consulted 12, july 7 2012]

Krogell, J.; Korotkova, E.; Eränen, K.; Pranovich, A.; Salmi, T.; Murzin, D.; Willför, S. 2013. Intensification of hemicellulose hot-water extraction from spruce wood in a batch extractor - Effects of wood particle size. Bioresource Technology 143: 212-220.

Lourençon, T.V.; Gonçalves, M, R.F.; Gatto, D.A.; Labidi, J.; Serrano, L.; Mattos, B.D. 2015. Efeito do encharcamento prolongado no comportamento físico-mecânico das madeiras de Corymbia citriodora e Eucalyptus grandis. Scientia Forestalis 43:9-18.

Mohareb, A.; Sirmah, P.; Pétrissans, M.; Gérardin, P. 2012. Effect of heat treatment intensity on wood chemical composition and decay durability of Pinus patula. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 70:519-524.

Mossi, A.J.; Mazutti, M.A.; Cansian, R.L.; Oliveira, D.; Oliveira, J.V.; Dallago, R.; Leontiev- Orlov, O.; Treichel, H. 2010. Variabilidade química de compostos orgânicos voláteis e semivoláteis de populações nativas de maytenus ilicifolia. Química Nova 33: 1067-1070.

Motta, J.P.; Oliveira, J.T.S.; Paes, J.B.; Alves, R.C.; Vidaurre, D.G.B. 2013. Resistência natural da madeira de Tectona grandis em ensaio de laboratório. Ciência Rural 43:1393-1398.

PN-EN113. 2000. Wood preservatives-Test method for determining the protective effectiveness against wood destroying basidiomycetes-Determination of the toxic values.

Pomian, I.; Fojutowski, A.; Wróblewska, H.; Komorowicz, M.; Kropacz, A.; Noskowiak, A. 2010. Research on wood submerged in the sea. Drewno Pr Nauk Donies Komunik. 53:101-111.

Silvério, F.O. 2008. Caracterização de extrativos de madeira de Eucalyptus e epósitos de pitch envolvidos na fabricação de polpa e celulose, Instituto de Ciências Exatas. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, p. 157f.

Silverstein, R.M.; Webster, F.X.; Kiemle, D.J. 2005. Spectrometric identification of organic compounds. John Wiley & Sons.

Silvestre, A.J.D.; Freire, C.S.R.; Pascoal-Neto, C. 2001. Eucalyptus globulus wood extractives: Composition and fate during pulping and bleaching. Proceedings of 7th Brazilian Symposium on the Chemistry of Lignins and other Wood Components - Oral Presentations, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, p. 69-76.

Sócrates, G. 1979. Infrared characteristic group frequencies. John Wiley e Sons, Canada. Song, T.; Pranovich, A.; Holmbom, B. 2013. Separation of polymeric galactoglucomannans from hot-water extract of spruce wood. Bioresource Technology 130:198-203.

Tamburini, D.; Łucejko, J.J.: Modugno, F.; Colombini, M. P. 2014. Characterisation of archaeological waterlogged wood from Herculaneum by pyrolysis and mass spectrometry. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 86:142-149.

TAPPI. 1993. T207 om-93, Water solubility of wood and pulp Atlanta.

TAPPI. 1996. T257 cm-85, Sampling and preparing wood for analysis, Atlanta.

TAPPI. 1997a. T204 cm-97, Solvent Extractives of Wood and Pulp, Atlanta.

TAPPI. 1997b. T264 cm-97, Preparation of wood for chemical analysis, Atlanta.

TAPPI. 1998a. T212 om-98, One percent sodium hydroxide solubility of wood and pulp, Atlanta.

TAPPI. 1998b. T222 om-98, Acid-insoluble Lignin in Wood and Pulp, Atlanta.

Tenenbaum, D. 2004. Underwater Logging: Submarine Rediscovers Lost Wood. Environmental Health Perspectives 112: A892-A895.

Wiedenhoeft, A. 2010. Structure and Function of Wood, in: Bergman, R.C., Zhiyong; Carll, Charlie G.; Clausen, Carol A.; Dietenberger, Mark A.; Falk, Robert H.; Frihart, Charles R.; Glass, Samuel V.; Hunt, Christopher G.; Ibach, Rebecca E.; Kretschmann, David E.; Rammer, Douglas R.; Ross, Robert J. (Ed.), Wood Handbook: Wood as an Engineering Material. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest

Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison: U.S. , pp. 3.1-3.18.


How to Cite

V. Lourençon, T., S. B. dos Santos, P., Labidi, J., A. Gatto, D., & R. F. Gonçalves, M. (2016). Wood under fresh water: Effect on the chemical properties and on decay resistance. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol, 18(4), 733–742. Retrieved from https://revistas.ubiobio.cl/index.php/MCT/article/view/2569




Most read articles by the same author(s)