The influence of raw material growth region, anatomical structure and chemical composition of wood on the quality properties of particleboards
Keywords:Anatomical properties, chemical properties, formaldehyde emission, mechanical properties, surface roughness.
AbstractIn the present study, the impact of raw material grown region on the physical, mechanical, surface properties and formaldehyde emission of the particleboard was investigated. Ailanthus altissima wood grown in Trabzon had longer fiber length and thicker fiber and trachea cell wall than those of the wood grown in Artvin. The highest amounts of lignin, ash, condensed tannin and solubility values were found in wood grown in Artvin. Ailanthus altissima wood grown in Trabzon had higher amounts of cellulose and hemicellulose than those of the wood grown in Artvin. Particleboards made from wood grown in Artvin had worse surface quality and mechanical strength properties than those of panels made from wood grown in Trabzon. On the other hand, the results showed that particleboards produced from wood grown in Artvin had lower thickness swelling and formaldehyde emision values than those of the panels produced from wood grown in Trabzon.
Altgen, D.; Bellmann, M.; Wascher, R.; Viöl, W.; Mai, C. 2015. Enhancing mechanical properties of particleboards using plasma treated wood particles. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 73: 219-223.
Ayrilmis, N.; Buyuksari, U.; Avci, E.; Koc, E. 2009. Utilization of pine (Pinus pinea L.) cone in manufacture of wood based composite. Forest Ecology and Management 259: 65-70.
Ayrilmis, N.; Lee, Y.K.; Kwon, J.H.; Han, T.H.; Kim, H.J. 2016. Formaldehyde emission and VOCs from LVLs produced with three grades of urea-formaldehyde resin modified with nanocellulose. Building and Environment 97: 82-87.
Ayrilmis, N.; Winandy, J.E. 2009. Effect of heat treatment on surface characteristics and adhesive bonding performance of MDF. Materials and Manufacturing Process 24: 594-599.
Baharoglu, M.; Nemli, G.; Sari, B.; Birturk, T.; Bardak, S. 2013. Effects of anatomical and chemical properties of wood on the quality of particleboard. Composites Part B: Engineering 52: 282-285.
Balanchet, P.; Cloiter, A.; Riedl, B. 2000. Particleboard produced from hammer milled black spruce bark residues. Wood Science and Technology 34: 11-19.
Bariska, M.; Pizzi, A. 1986. The interaction of polyflavonoid tannins with wood cell walls. Holzforschung 40(5): 299-302.
Boon, J.G.; Hashim, R.; Sulaiman, O.; Hiziroglu, S.; Sugimoto, T.; Sato, M. 2013. Influence of processing parameters on some properties of oil palm trunk binderless particleboard. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 71: 583-589.
Borgin, K.; Corbett, K. 1974. The hydrophobic properties of wattle bark extractives. Wood Science and Technology 8(2): 138-147.
Browning, B.L. 1967. Methods of wood chemistry. New York: Interscience, vol. 1-2. European Committee for Standardization. EN. 1994. Determination of formaldehyde content in fiberboard by using perforator method. EN 120-1. Brussels.
European Committee for Standardization. EN. 1993. Wood based panels, determination of modulus of elasticity in bending and bending strength. EN 310. Brussels.
European Committee for Standardization. EN. 2005. Particleboards-specifications. EN 312. Brussels-Belgium.
European Committee for Standardization. EN. 1993. Particleboard and fiberboards, determination of swelling in thickness after immersion in water. EN 317. Brussels.
European Committee for Standardization. EN. 1993. Particleboard and fiberboards, determination of tensile strength perpendicular to the plane of the board. EN 319. Brussels.
Fernandez, F.G.; Esteban, L.G.; De Palacios, P.; Navarro, N.; Conde, M. 2008. Prediction of standard particleboard mechanical properties utilizing an artificial neural network and subsequent comparison with a multivariate regression model. Investigación Agraria: Sistemas y Recursos Forestales 17: 178–187.
Ghalehno, M.D.; Nazerian, M.; Bayatkashkooli, A. 2011. Influence of utilization of bagasse in surface layer on bending strength of three-layer particleboard. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 69: 533-535.
Grigoriou, A.H. 2003. Waste paper wood composites bonded with isocynate. Wood Science and Technology 37: 79-89.
Hiziroglu, S.; Graham, M. 1998. Effect of press closing time and target thickness on surface roughness of particleboard. Forest Products Journal 48 (3): 50-54.
Hiziroglu, S.; Jarusombuti, S.; Fuengvitat, V. 2004. Surface characteristics of wood composites manufactured in Thailand. Building and Environment 39: 1359-1364.
IAWA. 1964. Committee on nomenclature. Winterthur: Multi lingual glossary of terms used in wood Anatomy, International Association of Wood Anatomists (IAWA).
International Organization for Standardization. ISO. 1997. International standard geometrical products specifications (GPS) surface texture: profile method terms, definitions, and surface texture parameters. ISO 4287. Geneva
Ives, E. 2001. A guide to wood microtermy: making quality microslides of wood sections. Lincolnshire (UK): Savona Books.
Kim, S.; Kim, H.J.; Lee, H.H. 2006. Effect of bio-scavengers on the curing behavior and bonding properties of melamine formaldehyde resins. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 291: 1027-1034.
Kord, B.; Roohani, M.; Kord, B. 2015. Characterization and utilization of reed stem as a lignocellulosic resource for particleboard production. Maderas: Cienc. Tecnol. 17(3): 517-524.
Kord, B.; Zare, H.; Hosseinzadeh, A. 2016. Evaluation of the mechanical and physical properties of particleboard manufactured from canola (Brassica napus) straws. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 18(1): 9-18.
Lehman, W.F.; Geimer, R.L. 1974. Properties of Structural ParticleboardsFrom Douglas-Fir Forest Residues. Forest Products Journal 24 (10): 17-25.
Liu, Y.; Shen, J.; Zhu, X.D. 2015. Evaluation of mechanical properties and formaldehyde emissions of particleboards with nanomaterial-added melamine-impregnated papers. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 73: 449-455.
Marshall, S.W.; Ifju, G.; Johnson, J.A. 1974. The role of extractives in the hydrophbic behavior of loblollypine rhytidome. Wood and Fiber Science 5(4): 353-363.
Melo, R.R.; Stangerlin, D.M.; Santana, R.R.C.; Pedrosa, T.D. 2015. Decay and termite resistance of particleboard manufactured from wood, bamboo and rice husk. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 17(1): 55-62.
Metcalfe, C.R.; Chalk, L. 1950. Anatomy of dicotyledons. London: University Press; 1950. 1st edn. Vol. 1.
Moubarik, A.; Mansouri, H.R.; Pizzi, A.; Charrier, F.; Allal, A. 2013. Bertrand charrier corn flour-mimosa tanin-based adhesives without formaldehyde for interior particleboard Production. Wood Science and Technology 47: 675-683.
Muhcu, S.; Nemli, G.; Ayrılmıs, N.; Bardak, S.; Baharoğlu, M.; Sarı, B.; Gerçek, Z. 2015. Effect of log position in European Larch (Larix decidua Mill.) tree on the technological properties of particleboard. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 30 (4): 357-362.
Nazerian, M.; Beyki, Z.; Gargarii, R.M.; Kool, F. 2016. The effect of some technological production variables on mechanical and physical properties of particleboard manufactured from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) stalk Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 18(1): 167-178.
Nemli, G.; Demirel, S. 2007. Relationship Between the Density Profile and the Technological Properties of the Particleboard Composite. Journal of Composite Materials 41(15): 2007.
Nemli, G.; Ozturk, I.; Aydin, I. 2005. Some of the parameters influencing surface roughness of particleboard. Building and Environment 40: 1337–1340.
Ors, Y.; Keskin, H. 2001. Wood Technology. Kosgeb Publications. 975-7608-87-4. Ankara, Turkey (in Turkish).
Pasillias, C.N.; Voulgaridis, E.V. 1999. Water repellant efficiency of organic solvent extractives from aleppo pine leaves and bark applied to wood. Holzforschung 53: 151-155.
Prasetya, B. 1989. The investigations on the barks of various tree species [Bachelor thesis on the afforestation of tropic and subtropic regions]. Gottingen: Forestry faculty, Universityof Gotingen Georg-August University of Gottingen.
Que, Z.; Furunoa, T.; Katoha, S.; Nishinob, Y. 2007. Effcets of urea formaldehdye resin mole ration on the properties of particleboard. Building and Environment 42 (3): 1257-1263.
Raffael, E.; Dix, B.; Okum, J. 2000. Use of spruce tanin as a binder in particleboards and MDF. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 58: 301-305.
Technical Associationof Pulp and Paper Industry. TAPPI. 1992. Sampling ad preparing wood for analysis. TAPPI T 11 M-45. TAPPI test methods. Atlanta (GA): TAPPI Press.
Technical Associationof Pulp and Paper Industry. TAPPI. 1997. Solvent extractives ofwood and pulp. T 204 cm-97. TAPPI test methods. Atlanta (GA): TAPPI Press.
Technical Associationof Pulp and Paper Industry TAPPI. 1988. Water solubility of woodand pulp. TAPPI T 207 om-88.TAPPI test methods, Atlanta (GA): TAPPI Press.
Technical Associationof Pulp and Paper Industry. TAPPI. 1993. Ash in wood, pulp, paperand paperboard. T 211 om-93.TAPPI test methods. Atlanta (GA): TAPPI Press.
Technical Associationof Pulp and Paper Industry. TAPPI. 1998. One percent sodiumhydroxide solubility of wood and wood pulp. T 212 om-98. TAPPI testmethods. Atlanta (GA): TAPPI Press.
Technical Associationof Pulp and Paper Industry. TAPPI. 2002. Acid-insoluble lignin inwood and pulp. T 222 om-02. TAPPI test methods. Atlanta (GA): TAPPI Press.
Tisler, V.; Galla, E.; Pulkinen, E. 1986. Fractination of hot water extract from Picea abies Karst. bark. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 44: 427-431.
Vanleemput, M.; Boye, C.; Logtenberg, E.H.P. 1987. Upgrading on beech by physicochemical treatments to ensure stability, durability and esthetic look. Wood as Renawable Raw Material Proceedings. Seminar on Wood Technology. Munich, p.14-18.
Wise, E.L.; Karz, H.L. 1962. Cellulose and hemicelluloses. In: Earl Libby C, editor. Pulp and paper science and technology. New York: McGray Book Com, p. 55-73.
Wisherd, K.D.; Wilson, B. 1979. Bark as a supplement to wood furnish for particleboard. Forest Products Journal 29 (2): 35.40.
Yusuf, S. 1996. Properties enhancement of wood by cross linkink formation and its application to the reconstituted wood products. PhD thesis. Kyoto University. Kyoto, Japan.
Zhang, Y.; Luo, X.; Wang, X.; Qian, K.; Zhao, R. 2007. Influence of temperature on formaldehyde emission parameters of dry building materials. Atmospheric Environment 41: 3203-3216.