Relationship between the dynamic and static modulus of elasticity in standing trees and sawn lumbers of Paulownia fortune planted in iran
Keywords:Modulus of elasticity, non-destructive testing, Paulownia, standing trees, stress-wave
This paper aims to introduce a relationship between the dynamic modulus of elasticity in healthy standing trees of Paulownia fortune (planted in Iran) and the static modulus of elasticity in sawn wood. For this reason, a stress-wave non-destructive testing technique was carried out in longitudinal and transverse directions in 14 trees into two diameter classes (25-31 cm and 32-38 cm) at breast height and in logs at different height of stem to measure the stress wave speed and consequently, dynamic modulus of elasticity. Then, static modulus of elasticity of samples was calculated using 3-point bending tests in the sawn wood. The results revealed that the stress-wave speed and dynamic modulus of elasticity in logs of paulownia are more than those of standing trees in longitudinal direction. Also, the diameter of the tree can significantly affect the stress wave velocity in standing trees and logs of paulownia. Finally, a high correlation coefficient exists between static modulus of elasticity and dynamic modulus of elasticity (r= 0.68) in this tree.
ASTM International. ASTM. 2017. ASTM Standard Test Methods for Small Clear Specimens of Timber ASTM-D143-94. 2007.
Auty, D.; Achim, A. 2008. The relationship between standing tree acoustic assessment and timber quality in Scots pine and the practical implications for assessing timber quality from naturally regenerated stands. Forestry 81(4): 475-487.
Baar, J.; Tippner, J.; Rademacher, P. 2015. Prediction of mechanical properties - modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity - of five tropical species by nondestructive methods. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 17(2): 239-252.
Beall, F.C. 2001. Wood Products: Nondestructive Evaluation. In: Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology (Second Edition). Elsevier: Oxford, pp 9702-9707.
Brashaw, B.K.; Wang, X.; Ross, R.J.; Pellerin, R.F. 2004. Relationship between stress wave velocities of green and dry veneer. Forest Products Journal 54(6): 85-89.
Brazee, N.J.; Marra, R.E.; Göcke, L.; Van Wassenaer, P. 2011. Non-destructive assessment of internal decay in three hardwood species of northeastern North America using sonic and electrical impedance tomography. Forestry 84(1): 33-39.
Divos, F.; Tanaka, T. 2005. Relation between static and dynamic modulus of elasticity of wood. Acta Silv Lign Hung 1(1): 105-110.
Ghanbari, A.; Madhoushi, M.; Ashori, A. 2014. Wood plastic composite panels: Influence of the species, formulation variables and blending process on the density and withdrawal strength of fasteners. Journal of Polymers and the Environment 22(2): 260-266.
Grabianowski, M.; Manley, B.; Walker, J.C.F. 2006. Acoustic measurements on standing trees, logs and green lumber. Wood Science and Technology 40(3): 205-216.
Guntekin, E.; Emiroglu, Z.G., Yilmaz, T. 2012. Prediction of bending properties for turkish red Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) lumber using stress wave method. BioResources 8(1): 231-237.
Guntekin, E.; Ozkan, S.; Yilmaz, T. 2014. Some mechanical properties of plywood produced from eucalyptus, beech, and poplar veneer. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 16(1): 93-98.
Hidayati, F.; Ishiguri, F.; Iizuka, K.; Yokota, S. 2013. Variation in tree growth characteristics, stress-wave velocity, and Pilodyn penetration of 24-year-old teak (Tectona grandis) trees originating in 21 seed provenances planted in Indonesia. Journal of Wood Science 59(6): 512-516.
Ishiguri, F.; Diloksumpun, S.; Tanabe, J.; Iizuka, K.; Yokota, S. 2013. Stress-wave velocity of trees and dynamic Young modulus of logs of 4-year-old Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees selected for pulpwood production in Thailand. Journal of Wood Science 59(6): 506-511.
Lawday, G.; Hodges, P.A. 2000. The analytical use of stress waves for the detection of decay in standing trees. Forestry 73(5): 447-456.
Macdonald, E.; Hubert, J. 2002. A review of the effects of silviculture on timber quality of Sitka spruce. Forestry 75(2): 107-138.
Madhoushi, M.; Daneshvar, S. 2016. Predicting the static modulus of elasticity in eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) using stress wave non-destructive testing in standing trees. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 74(6): 885-892.
Miri Tari, S.M.; Madhoushi, M. 2013. Kiln drying schedule based on diffusion theory. World of Sciences Journal 1(1): 9-24.
Schubert, S.; Gsell, D.; Dual, J.; Motavalli, M.; Niemz, P. 2009. Acoustic wood tomography on trees and the challenge of wood heterogeneity. Holzforschung 63(1): 107-112.
Seidel, D.; Beyer, F.; Hertel, D.; Fleck, S.; Leuschner, C. 2011. 3D-laser scanning: A non-destructive method for studying above-ground biomass and growth of juvenile trees. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 151(10): 1305-1311.
Tomazello, M.; Brazolin, S.; Chagas, M.P.; Oliveira, J.T.S.; Ballarin, A.W.; Benjamin. C.A. 2008. Application of X-ray technique in nondestructive evaluation of eucalypt wood. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 10(2): 139-149.
Wang, X. 2013. Acoustic measurements on trees and logs: a review and analysis. Wood Science and Technology 47(5): 965-975.
Wang, X.; Divos, F.; Pilon, C. 2004. Assessment of decay in standing timber using stress wave timing nondestructive evaluation tools. USDA Forest Products Laboratory, FPL-GTR-147.
Wang, X.; Ross, R.J.; Brashaw, B.K.; Punches, J.; Erickson, R.J.; Forsman, J.W.; Pellerin, R.F. 2003. Diameter effect on stress wave evaluation of modulus of elasticity of logs. Wood and Fiber Science 36(3): 368-377.
Wang, X.; Ross, R.J.; Carter, P. 2007. Acoustic evaluation of wood quality in standing trees. Wood and Fiber Science 39(1): 28-38.
Wang, X.; Ross, R.J.; Mcclellan, M.; Barbour, R.J.; Erickson, J.R.; Forsman, J.W.; Mcginnis, G.D. 2000. Strength and stiffness assessment of standing trees using a nondestructive stress wave technique. USDA, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory: Madison, WI.
Wang, X.; Wiedenbeck, J.; Ross, R.J.; Forsman, J.W.; Erickson, J.R.; Pilon, C.; Brashaw, B.K. 2005. Nondestructive evaluation of incipient decay in hard wood logs. USDA, Forest Product Laboratory: Madison, WI.
Zhang, H.; Wang, X.; Su, J. 2011. Experimental investigation of stress wave propagation in standing trees. Holzforschung 55(5): 743-748.