Toxicity potential of heartwood extractives from two mulberry species against Heterotermes indicola
Choice and no-choice tests were run to evaluate natural resistance of the woods of two Morus species (Morus alba and Morus nigra) against the subterranean, by Heterotermes indicola under field conditions. Toxicity, antifeedant and repellency potential of the heartwood extractives was also investigated under laboratory conditions. Heartwood extractives were removed from wood shavings by using methanol or an ethanol: toluene (2:1) mixture. Results of choice and no-choice tests with sap and heartwood blocks exposed to termites, showed that both mulberry species were resistant to termites but in comparison. Morus alba wood was more resistant than Morus nigra to termite feeding as it showed <5 % weight loss after 90 days. Termites exhibited a concentration dependent mortality after exposure to either mulberry species’ heartwood extractives. The highest termite mortality occurred after termites were exposed to filter paper treated with Morus alba extractives at a concentration of 5%. . At this concentration, antifeedancy and repellency were calculated to be 91.67 and 84 %respectively. . Our results also showed that extractives from either mulberry species imparted resistance to vacuum-pressure treated non-durable Populus deltoides wood. Termite mortality was greater than 75 % after feeding on Populus deltoides wood treated with extractives from Morus alba. Solvent only (methanol) treated Populus deltoides controls, showed a minimum weight loss of 2.69 % after 28 days. These results suggest that Morus alba extractives have antitermitic properties and may be potentially useful in the development of environment friendly termiticides.
Afzal, M.; Qureshi, N.A.; Rasib, K.Z.; Hussain, I. 2017. Resistance of commercial and non-commercial woods against Heterotermes indicola Wasmann (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) in laboratory and field conditions. Pakistan Journal Zoology 49(3): 48-57.
Ahmed, S.; Fatima, R.; Nisar, M.S.; Hassan, B. 2014. Evaluation of castor bean oil on Acacia nilotica as wood preservative against Odontotermes obesus (Ramb.) (Termitidae: Isoptera). International Wood Products Journal5(1):5-10.
Chen, J.J.; Li, X.G. 2007. Hypolipidemic effect of flavonoids from mulberry leaves in triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic mice. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16 (Suppl 1): 290-294.
Datta, R.K. 2000. Mulberry cultivation and utilization in India . Animal Production and Health Paper 147 (2002): 45-62.
Dugal, F.M.; Latif, M.U. 2015. Comparative study of resistance and feeding preference of 24 wood species to attack by Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann) and Coptotermes heimi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae, termitidae) in Pakistan. Sociobiology 62(3): 417-425.
Dungani, R.; Khalil, H.A.; Naif, A.; Hermawan, D. 2012. Evaluation of antitermitic activity of different extracts obtained from Indonesian teakwood (Tectona grandis Lf). BioResources 7 (2): 1452-1461.
Ganapaty, S.; Thomas, P.S.; Fotso, S.; Laatsch, H. 2004. Antitermitic quinines from Diospyros sylvatica. Phytochemistry 65(9): 1265-1271.
Hassan, B.; Ahmed, S.; Kirker, G.; Mankowski, M.E.; ul Haq, M.M. 2018a. Antioxidant effects of four heartwood extractives on midgut enzyme activity in Heterotermes indicola (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae). Environmental Entomology 47(3): 741-748.
Hassan, B.; Mankows ki, M.E.; Kirker, G.T.; Clausen, C.A.; Sohail, A. 2018b. Effects of White Mulberry (Morus alba) Heartwood Extract Against Reticulitermes flavipes (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 111(3): 1337-1345.
Hassan, B.; Mankowski, M.E.; Kirker, G.; Ahmed, S. 2017. Effects of heartwood extractives on symbiotic protozoan communities and mortality in two termite species. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 123: 27-36.
Hassan, B.; Mark, M.; Grant, K.; Sohail, A.; Muhammad, M ul H. 2006a. Antitermitic activities of Shisham (Dalbergia Sissoo Roxb.) heartwood extractives against two termite species. In Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting, IRG/WP16-10856. The International Research Group on Wood Protection, pp. 1-16.
Hassan, B.; Sohail, A.; Muhammad, M.U.H.; Mankowski, M.; Nasir, M. 2016b. Antitermitic activities of Pinus roxburghii wood extractives against Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). VII International Scientific Agriculture Symposium, Agrosym 2016, Jahorina, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Proceedings. University of East Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture. 1567-1575.
Kadir, R.; Ali, N.M.; Soit, Z.; Khamaruddin, Z. 2014. Anti-termitic potential of heartwood and bark extract and chemical compounds isolated from Madhuca utilis Ridl. HJ Lam and Neobalanocarpus heimii King PS Ashton. Holzforschung 68 (6): 713-720.
Kasseney, B.D.; Deng, T.; Mo, J. 2011. Effect of wood hardness and secondary compounds on feeding preference of Odontotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Termitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 104(3): 862-867.
Kirker, G.T.; Clausen, C.A.; Blodgett, A. B.; Lebow, S. T. 2013. Evaluating naturally durable wood species for repair and rehabilitation of above-ground components of covered bridges. USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, General Technical Report, FPL-GTR-224: 1-43.
Little, N. S.; Schultz, T. P.; Nicholas, D. D. 2010. Termite resistant heartwood. Effect of antioxidants on termite feeding deterrence and mortality. Holzforschung 64 (3): 395- 398.
Lyons, F.H. 1936. Impregnation composition for wood and the like. US. Patent 2,041,647.
Mankowski, M.; Boyd, B.; Hassan, B.; Kirker, G.T. 2016. GC-MS characterizations of termiticidal heartwood extractives from wood species utilized in Pakistan. IRG Annual Meeting. IRG/WP16-10857. In Proceedings of the International Research Group on Wood Protection. pp.1-16
Mansour, M.M.A.; Salem, M.Z.M.; Khamis, M.H. 2015. Natural durability of Citharexylum spinosum and Morus alba woods against three mold fungi. Bioresource Technology 10 (3): 5330-5344.
Misbah-ul-Haq, M.; Khan, I.A.; Farid, A.; Ullah, M.2015. Dose response relationship of subterranean termite, Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann) and two insect growth regulators, hexaflumuron and lufenuron. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 3(4): 86-90.
Morales-Ramos, J.A.; Rojas, M.G. 2001. Nutritional ecology of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): Feeding response to commercial wood species. Journal of Economic Entomology 94(2): 516-523.
Ohmura, W.; Doi, S.; Aoyama, M.; Ohara, S. 2000. Antifeedant activity of flavonoids and related compounds against the subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus. Journal of Wood Science 46(2): 149-153.
Pasheva, M.; Nashar, M.; Pavlov, D.; Slavova, S.; Ivanov, D.; Ivanova, D. 2013. Antioxidant capacity of different woods traditionally used for coloring hard alcoholic beverages in Bulgaria. Medicine 3(1): 123-127.
Pasheva, M.; Nashar, M.; Tasinov, O.; Ivanova, D. 2015. Effects of mulberry heartwood extract on the gene expression of nf-kb and two proinflammatory cytokines in a cell culture model of oxidative stress. Science & Technologies Medicine5(1): 47-54.
Peralta, R.C.G.; Menezes, E.B.; Carvalho, A.G.; Menezes, E.L.A. 2004. Wood consumption rates of forest species by subterranean termites (Isoptera) under field conditions. Arvore 28(2): 283-289.
Qureshi, N.A.; Qureshi, M.Z.; Ashraf, A. 2016. Comparative protozoacidal activities of different chemical extracts from various parts of three wood species against entozoic flagellates of Heterotermes indicola and Coptotermes heimi. International Journal Bioscience 8(3): 53-62.
Ragon, K.W.; Nicholas, D.D.; Schultz, T.P. 2008. Termite-resistant heartwood: the effect of the non-biocidal antioxidant properties of the extractives (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Sociobiology 52(1): 47-54.
Rasib, K.Z. 2008. Feeding preferences of Microcerotermes championi (Snyder) on different timbers dried at different temperatures under choice and no-choice trials. Available Nature Precedings Available Nature Precedings
Rasib, K.Z.; Ashraf, H. 2014. Feeding preferences of Coptotermes heimi (Isoptera: Termitidae) under laboratory and field conditions for different commercial and non-commercial woods. Int J Trop Insect Sci 34(2): 115-126.
Rasib, K.Z.; Aihetasham, A. 2016. Constituents and termiticide potential of some wood extracts against Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Turkish Journal of Entomology 40(2): 165-174.
Rowe, J.W.; Conner, A. 1979. Extractives in eastern hardwoods-a review. Forest Products Laboratory, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture: Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 72p.
Sadeghifar, H.; Sheikh, L.I.; Khalilzadeh, M.L.I.; Ebadi, A.G. 2011. Heartwood Extractives of Iranian Morus alba Wood. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan 33(1): 104-106.
Salem, M.Z.M.; Aly, H.I.M.; Gohar, Y.M.; EL-Sayed, A.B. 2013. Biological activity of extracts from Morus alba L., Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth and Casuarina glauca Sieber against the growth of some pathogenic bacteria. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 2(1): 9-22.
Schultz, T.P.; Nicholas, D.D. 2000. Naturally durable heartwood : evidence for a proposed dual defensive function of the extractives. Phytochemistry 54 (1): 47-52.
Se-Golpayegani, A.; Thevenon, M.F.; Gril, J.; Masson, E.; Pourtahmasi, K. 2014. Toxicity potential in the extraneous compounds of white mulberry wood (Morus alba). Maderas- Cienc Tecnol 16(2): 227-238.
Se-Golpayegani, A.; Thevenon, M.F.; Gril, J.; Pourtahmasi, K. 2010. Natural durability of white mulberry (Morus alba L.). In Proceedings 41st Annual Meeting. IRG/WP 10-10737. International Research Group on Wood Protection: Biarritz, France, 9-13 May 2010.
Taylor, A.M.; Gartner, B.L.; Morrell, J.J. 2002. Heartwood formation and natural durability- A review. Wood and Fiber Science 3(4): 587-611.
Watanabe, Y.; Mihara, R.; Mitsunaga, T.; Yoshimura, T. 2005. Termite repellent sesquiterpenoids from Callitris glaucophylla heartwood. Journal of Wood Science 51(5): 514-519.
Yamaguchi, H.; Yoshino, K.; Kido, A. 2002. Termite resistance and wood- penetrability of chemically modified tannin and tannin-copper complexes as wood preservatives. Journal of Wood Science 48(4): 331-337.