Preparation of plywood panels using waste milk pouches as an adhesive


  • Siddhartha Arya
  • Shakti Chauhan



Composites, milk-pouches, plywood, polymer, recycling


Recycling of single use plastic like milk pouches, oil pouches, etc. for high value products can have significant environmental, social and economic implications. The present study focuses on the utilization of waste milk pouches made out of low-density polyethylene as the bonding agent in preparation of plywood panels. Plywood panels with varying content of polymeric content (milk pouch layers) were prepared and evaluated for physical and mechanical properties. The results indicated that with increase in the dosage of milk-pouch content, both physical as well as mechanical properties of the plywood improved substantially. There was nearly three folds difference in modulus of rupture of panel prepared with 80 g/m2 and 310 g/m2polymer content. Similarly, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity also increased significantly with increase in polymer content. The glue shear strength, which is very important for plywood, was found to be influenced by the quantity of polymer. Glue shear strength for panel with 80 g/m2 polymer was 0,75 MPa which increased to 1,90 MPa in panel with 310 g/m2 polymer content. It was observed that for strong bonding it is essential that the quantity of polymer should be sufficient enough to penetrate into the pores of wood creating a mechanical interlocking of veneers. The study opens up the scope of recycling of waste milk pouches in the preparation of formaldehyde free plywood.


Download data is not yet available.


Alkan, Ü.; Kılıç, M.; Karabul, Y.; Çağlar, M.; İçelli, O.;Güven Özdemir, Z. 2018. X-ray irradiated LDPE/PP blends with high mechanical and dielectric performance. J Appl Polym Sci 135(31): 1-10.

Aranda-García, F.J.; González-Pérez,M.M.; Robledo-Ortíz, J.R.;Rosa, C.S.; Espinoza, K.; Ramírez-Arreola, D.E. 2020. Influence of processing time on physical and mechanical properties of composite boards made of recycled multilayer containers and HDPE. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 22: 2020-2028.

Aryan, Y.; Yadav, P.; Samadder, S.R. 2019. Life Cycle Assessment of the existing and proposed plastic waste management options in India:A case study. J Clean Prod 211: 1268-1283.

ASTM D790-15. 2016. D790-15: Standard test method for flexural properties of unreinforced and reinforced plastics and electrical insulating material. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D638-14. 2016. D638-14: Standard test method for Tensile properties of plastic. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

Bekhta, P.; Sedliačik, J. 2019. Environmentally-friendly high-density polyethylene-bonded plywood panels. Polymers 11(7): 1166.

Bekhta, P.; Müller, M.; Hunko, I. 2020. Properties of thermoplastic bonded plywood: Effects of the wood species and types of the thermoplastic films. Polymers 12(11):2582.

Bono, A.; Farm, Y.Y.; Krishnaiah, D.; Ismail, N.M.; Yee, L.Y.K.; Lee, L.M. 2010. Palm kernel based wood adhesive. J Appl Sci 10(21): 2638-2642.

Borysiuk, P.; Mamiński, M. Ł.; Parzuchowski, P.; Zado, A. 2010. Application of polystyrene as binder for veneers bonding-the effect of pressing parameters. Eur J Wood Prod 68: 487-489.

Chamas, A.; Moon, H.; Zheng, J.; Qiu,Y.; Tabassum,T.; Jang, J.H.; Abu-Omar, M.; Scott, S.L.; Suh, S. 2020. Degradation rates of plastics in the environment. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 8(9): 3494-3511.

Chang, L.; Tang, Q.; Gao, L.; Fang, L.; Wang, Z.; Guo, W. 2018. Fabrication and characterization of HDPE resins as adhesives in plywood. Eur J Wood Prod 76(1): 325–335.

CPCB. 2015. Assessment andquantification of plastics waste generation in major cities. A report pubished by Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment Forests and Climate Change, Government of India.

Cui, T.; Song, K. L.; Zhang, S. B. 2010. Research on utilizing recycled plastic to make environment-friendly plywood. Forestry Studies in China 12(4): 218-222.

De Barros Lustosa, E.C.; Del Menezzi, C.H.S.; De Melo, R.R. 2015. Production and properties of a new wood laminated veneer/high-density polyethylene composite board. Mater Res 18(5): 994-999.

Demirkır, C.; Öztürk, H.; Çolakoğlu, G. 2017. Effects of press parameters on some technological properties of polystren composite plywood. Kastamonu Univ J Fores Fac 17(3): 517-522.

Fang, L.; Chang, L.; Guo, W. J.; Chen, Y.; Wang, Z. 2014. Influence of silane surface modification of veneer on interfacial adhesion of wood-plastic plywood. Appl Surf Sci 288: 682-689.

Fang, L.; Chang, L.; Guo, W. J.; Ren, Y. P.; Wang, Z. 2013. Preparation and characterization of wood-plastic plywood bonded with high density polyethylene film. Eur J Wood Prod 71(6): 739-746.

Fang, L.; Xiong, X.; Wang, X.; Chen, H.; Mo, X. 2017. Effects of surface modification methods on mechanical and interfacial properties of high-density polyethylene-bonded wood veneer composites. J Wood Sci 63(1): 65-73.

Follrich, J.; Müller, U.; Gindl,W. 2006. Effects of thermal modification on the adhesion between spruce wood (Picea abies Karst.) and a thermoplastic polymer. Eur J Wood Prod 64(5): 373-376.

Ibragimov, A.; Vasilkin, A.; Fedotov, A. 2017. Research physic-mechanical properties of composite materials on the base of peeled veneer and low density polyethylene. IOP Conf. Ser: Earth Environ Sci 90: 012062.

IS:1734. 1983. Bureau of Indian Standards, Methods of test for plywood. New Delhi.

IS:2380. 1977. Bureau of Indian Standards, Methods of test for wood particle boards aaand boards from other lignocellulosic material. New Delhi.

Jang, Y.; Huang, J.; Li,K. 2011. A new formaldehyde-free wood adhesive from renewable materials. Int J Adhes Adhes 31(7): 754-759.

Kajaks, J.; Reihmane, S.; Grinbergs, U.; Kalnins, K. 2012. Use of innovative environmentaly friendly adhesives for wood veneer bonding. Pro Est Acad Sci 61(3): 207-211.

Khali, D.P.; Kumar, A.; Shrivastava, P.2017. Plywood for general purpose (interior grade) of selected different progenies of Melia composita Benth. J Ind Acad Wood Sci 14(2): 139-145.

Mäkinen, M.; Kalliokoski, P.; Kangas, J.1999. Assessment of total exposure to phenol-formaldehyde resin glue in plywood manufacturing. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 72(5): 309-314.

Matuana, L.M.; Balatinecz, J.J.; Park, C.B.1998. Effect of surface properties on the adhesion between PVC and wood veneer laminates. Polym Eng Sci 38(5): 765-773.

Parthiban, K.T.; Dey, S.; Krishnakumar, N.; Das, A. 2019. Wood and plywood quality characterization of new and alternate species amenable for composite wood production. Wood Fiber Sci 51(4): 1-8.

Saravanan, V.; Parthiban, K.T.; Kumar, P.; Marimuthu, P. 2013.Wood characterization studies on Melia dubia cav. for pulp and paper industry at different age gradation. Res J of Recent Sci 2(ISC-2012): 183-188.

Song, W.; Wei, W.; Li, X.; Zhang, S.2016. Utilization of polypropylene film as an adhesive to prepare formaldehyde-free, weather-resistant plywood-like composites: Process optimization, performance evaluation, and interface modification. BioResources 12(1): 228-254.

Song, W.; Wei, W.; Wang, D.; Zhang, S. 2017. Preparation and properties of new plywood composites made from surface modified veneers and polyvinyl chloride films. BioResources12(4): 8320-8339.

Tang, L.; Zhang, Z. G.; Qi, J.; Zhao, J. R.; Feng, Y. 2011. The preparation and application of a new formaldehyde-free adhesive for plywood. Int J Adhes Adhes 31(6): 507-512.

Tenorio, C.; Moya, R.; Muñoz, F.2011. Comparative study on physical and mechanical properties of laminated veneer lumber and plywood panels made of wood from fast-growing Gmelina arborea trees. J Wood Sci 57(2): 134-139.

Yue, K.; Wang, L.; Xia, J.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, Z.; Liu, W.2019. Experimental research on mechanical properties of laminated poplar wood veneer/Plastic sheet composites. Wood Fiber Sci 51(3):320-331.




How to Cite

Arya, S. ., & Chauhan, S. . (2021). Preparation of plywood panels using waste milk pouches as an adhesive. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol, 24, 1–10.