Performance of cement-bonded wood particleboards produced using fly ash and spruce planer shavings


  • Husnu Yel
  • Elvan Urun



Cement-bonded wood particleboards, fly ash, planer shavings, thermal-morphological properties, physic-mechanical properties


The aim of this research was to investigate the physico-mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of cement-bonded wood particleboards produced by using fly ash as a partial cement replacement and spruce planer shavings. Experimental single-layer cement-bonded wood particleboards produced using a target density of 1200 kg/m3, 1/3 wood-cement ratio, a dimension of 460 x 460 x 10 mm3 and 5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 % fly ash as cement replacement were tested for physical and mechanical properties in accordance with EN and ASTM standards. Moreover, morphological and thermal properties of the cement-bonded wood particleboards were analysed by using the scanning electron microscope and thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetry.  Test results indicated that the fly ash enhanced both the bending strength and water-resistance of the cement-bonded wood particleboards. Internal bond and screw withdrawal strengths tended to decrease as the fly ash content increased in the cement-bonded wood particleboards, but this decrease was not statistically significant. As the fly ash increased, the weight loss of the cement-bonded wood particleboards decreased in the thermogravimetric analysis because of the pozzolonic reaction of the fly ash with calcium hydroxide. In the scanning electron microscope, it was observed that calcium silicate hydrate gel increased, whereas calcium hydroxide decreased as the usage ratio of the fly ash increased in the cement-bonded wood particleboards.


Download data is not yet available.


Al sallami, Z.H.A.; Marshdi, Q.S.R.; Mukheef, R.A.A.H. 2020. Efect of cement replacement by fy ash and epoxy on the properties of pervious concrete, Asian J Civ Eng 21: 49–58.

American Society for Testing and Materials. 2006. ASTM D1037: Standard Test Method for Evaluating Properties of Wood-Based Fibres and Particle Panel Materials. ASTM. West Conshohocken, PA, USA.

Aras, U.; Kalaycıoğlu, H.; Yel, H.; Kuştaş, S. 2022. Utilization of olive mill solid waste in the manufacturing of cement-bonded particleboard. J Build Eng 49: 104055.

Ashori, A.; Tabarsa, T.; Sepahvand, S. 2012. Cement-bonded composite panels made from poplar strands. Constr Build Mater 26: 131-134.

Behl, V.; Singh, V.; Dahiya, V.; Kumar, A. 2022. Characterization of physico-chemical and functional properties of fly ash concrete mix. Mater Today Proc 50: 941–945.

Bui, P.T.; Ogawa, Y.; Kawai, K. 2018. Long-term pozzolanic reaction of fly ash in hardened cement-based paste internally activated by natural injection of saturated Ca(OH)2 solution. Mater Struct 51: 144.

Çavdar, A.D.; Yel, H.; Torun, S.B. 2022. Microcrystalline cellulose addition effects on the properties of wood cement boards. J Build Eng 48: 103975.

Fischer, G. L.; Prentice, B.A.; Silberman, D.; Ondov, J.M.; Bierman, A.H.; Ragiani, R.C.; McFarland, A.R. 1978. Physical and morphological studies of size classified coal fly ash. Envıron Sci Technol 12(4): 447-451.

Golewski, G.L. 2021. The beneficial effect of the addition of fly ash on reduction of the size of microcracks in the ITZ of concrete composites under dynamic loading. Energies 14: 668.

Hays, M.D.; Fine, P.M.; Geron, C.D.; Kleeman, M.J.; Gullett, B.K. 2005. Open burning of agricultural biomass:physical and chemical properties of particle-phase emissions. Atmos Environ 39(36): 6747-6764.

Hermawan, D.; Hata, T.; Umemura, K.; Kawai, S.; Nagadomi, W.; Kuroki, Y. 2001. Rapid production of high-strength cement-bonded particleboard using gaseous or supercritical carbon dioxide. J Wood Sci 47: 294–300.

Horsakulthai, V.; Paopongpaiboon, K. 2013. Strength, chloride permeability and corrosion of coarse fly ash concrete with bagasse-rice husk-wood ash additive. Am J Appl Sci 10(3): 239-246.

Karahan, O. 2006. Liflerle güçlendirilmiş uçucu küllü betonların özellikleri. Ph.D. Thesis, Cukurova University, Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences, Adana, Turkey.

Kim, H.S.; Kim, S.; Kim, H.J.; Yang, H.S. 2006. Thermal properties of bio-flour-filledpolyolefin composites with different compatibilizing agent type and content. Thermochim Acta 451:181–188.

Lin, C.; Kayali, O.; Morozov, E.V.; Sharp, D.J. 2017. Development of self-compacting strain-hardening cementitious composites by varying fly ash content. Constr Build Mater 149: 103–110.

Ma, W.; Liu, C.; Brown, P.W.; Komarnen, S. 1995. Pore structure of fly ash activated by Ca(OH)2 and CaSO4.2H2O. Cement Concrete Res 25(2): 417-425.

Malhotra, V.M. 2002. Introduction: sustainable development and concrete technology. Concr Int 24(7): 22.

Mathapati, M.; Amate, K.; Durga Prasad, C.; Jayavardhana, M.L.; Hemanth Raju, T. 2022. A review on fly ash utilization. Mater Today Proc 50: 1535–1540.

Okino, E.Y.A; de Souza, M.R.; Santana, M.A.E; Alves, M.V.S.; de Sousa, M.E.; Teixeira, D.E. 2004. Cement-bonded wood particleboard with a mixture of eucalypt and rubberwood. Cement Concrete Comp 26: 729–734.

Pereira, C.L.; Savastano, H.; Payá, J.; Santos, S.F.; Borrachero, M.V.; Monzó, J.; Soriano, L. 2013. Use of highly reactive rice husk ash in the production of cement matrix reinforced with green coconut fiber. Ind Crop Prod 49: 88–96.

Rajamma, R.; Senff, L.; Ribeiro, M.J.; Labrincha, J.A.; Ball, R.J.; Allen, G.C.; Ferreira, V.M. 2015. Biomass fly ash effect on fresh and hardened state propeties of cement bases material. Compos B Eng 77: 1–9.

Quirogaa, A.; Marzocchib, V.; Rintoulc, I. 2016. Influence of wood treatments on mechanical properties of wood–cement composites and of Populus euroamericana wood fibers. Compos B Eng 84: 25-32.

Saboo, N.; Shivhare, S.; Kori, K.K; Chandrappa, A.K. 2019. Effect of fly ash and metakaolin on pervious concrete properties. Constr Build Mater 223: 322-328. https://10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.06.185.

Saha, A.K. 2018. Effect of class F fly ash on the durability properties of concrete. Sustain Environ Res 28(1): 25-31.

Sanalkumar, K.U.A.; Lahoti, M.; Yang, E.H. 2019. Investigating the potential reactivity of fly ash for geopolymerization. Constr Build Mater 225: 283–291.

Simatupang, M.H. 1979. Water requirement for the production of cement-bonded particleboard. Eur J Wood Wood Prod 37(10): 379-382.

Tkaczewska, E.; Małolepszy, J. 2009. Hydration of coal–biomass fly ash cement. Constr Build Mater 23: 2694-2700. https://10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2008.12.018.

Turker, P.; Erdoğan, B.; Katnaş, F.; Yeğinobalı, A. 2009. Classification and properties of fly ash in Turkey-. Turkish Cement Manufacturers' Association. Ankara, Turkey.

Turkish Standards Enstitution. 1999. TS EN 322: Wood-based panels- determination of moisture content. Ankara, Turkey.

Turkish Standards Enstitution. 1999. TS EN 323: Wood-based panels- determination of density. Ankara, Turkey.

Turkish Standards Enstitution. 2011. TS EN 320: Particleboards and fibreboards - Determination of resistance to axial withdrawal of screws. Ankara, Turkey.

Turkish Standards Enstitution. 1999. TS EN 310: Wood based panels, determination of modulus of elasticity in bending and bending strength. Ankara, Turkey.

Turkish Standards Enstitution. 1999. TS EN 319: Particleboard and fiberboards, determination of tensile strength perpendicular to the plane of the board. Ankara, Turkey.

Turkish Standards Enstitution. 1999. TS EN 317: Particleboards and fibreboards- Determination of swelling in thickness after immersion in water. Ankara, Turkey.

Turkish Standards Enstitution. 1999. TS EN 634-1: Cement-bonded particleboards. Specifications - part 1: general requirements. Ankara, Turkey.

Turkish Standards Enstitution. 2007. TS EN 634-2: Cement-bonded particleboards. Specifications. Requirements for OPC bonded particleboards for use in dry, humid and external condition. Ankara, Turkey.

Venkateswara Rao, A.; Srinivasa Rao, K. 2020. 125-135. Effect of fly ash on strength of concrete. In Circular Economy and Fly Ash Management. Ghosh, S.K.; Kumar, V. (Eds.). Springer, Singapore.

Vu, V.A.; Cloutier, A.; Bissonnette, B.; Blanchet, P.; Duchesne, J. 2019. The effect of wood ash as a partial cement replacement material for making wood-cement panels. Materials 12(17): 2766.

Xu, G.; Shi, X. 2018. Characteristics and applications of fly ash as a sustainable construction material: A state-of-the-art review. Resour Conserv Recycl 136: 95—109.

Yel, H.; Donmez Cavdar, A.; Boran Torun, S. 2020. Effect of press temperature on some properties of cement-bonded particleboard. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 22(1): 83-92.

Yu, Z.; Ye, G. 2013.The pore structure of cement paste blended with fly ash. Constr Build Mater 45: 30-35.

Zhang, D.; Ge, Y.; Pang, S.D.; Liu, P. 2021. The effect of fly ash content on flexural performance and fiber failure mechanism of lightweight deflection-hardening cementitious composites. Constr Build Mater 302: 124349.




How to Cite

Yel, H. ., & Urun, E. . (2022). Performance of cement-bonded wood particleboards produced using fly ash and spruce planer shavings. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol, 24, 1–10.